2 Religious Reform Second Great Awakening Rise of Evangelical movement Focus on women in churchesChristian Revivals became popular in the growing westNew groups that grew from the Reform:Utopian SocietiesGroups that withdrew from Organized ReligionShakersSocially radical religious groupsMormonsJoseph Smith established a Christian Theocracy in Utah
3 Temperance Movement A violation of Christian Law Led by women The focus of the Temperance Movement was to stop the drinking of alcoholOn average, men spent about 60% of their wages on alcoholThe 18th Amendment was the result of the Temperance Movement
4 Worker’s Rights and Reform The average factory worker worked 12 to 14 hours per day…6 days per weekChild labor (working children as young as 8 years old)Labor Unions were created to improve working conditionsLabor Unions used strikes to persuade management.Eliminated Child LaborEstablished 5 day – 40 hour week.
5 Education Reform Initially education was for those who could afford it Most of the initial schools were led by churchesHorace Mann led the movement to establish public educationThe first public high school was opened in Boston in 1821.Most women and African Americans were not allowed into public schools until the late 1800s
6 Women’s Suffrage Women were considered to be inferior to men By the mid 1800s, women focused on women’s right to vote and abolitionismElizabeth Cady Stanton & Lucretia Mott led the Women’s Suffrage MovementThe Seneca Falls Convention was first national meetingThe meeting urged the first proposed amendment for women’s vote (Failed)
7 Political Reform Monroe Doctrine James Monroe – 5th President (1817 – 1825) – “The Era of Good Feelings”The Doctrine stated that no European nation could colonize the Americas.Reasoning – “To protect the peace and safety of the United States”.