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Chapter Thirteen: Families

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1 Chapter Thirteen: Families

2 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2009
Chapter Overview Marriage and Family in Global Perspective Marriage and Family in Theoretical Perspective The Family Life Cycle Diversity in U.S. Families Trends in U.S. Families Divorce and Remarriage Two Sides of Family Life The Future of Marriage and Family Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2009

3 Family Defined Two or more people
That are related by blood, marriage, or adoption or Are part of a relationship that includes mutual rights and obligations and is assumed to be permanent

4 Different Types of Families
Nuclear Family – husband, wife, and their immediate children Extended Family – nuclear family plus grandparents, cousins and other relatives living in the same household or nearby Family of Orientation – family a person grows up in Family of Procreation – family formed when a couple has their first child Marriage – a group’s approved mating arrangements, usually marked by a ritual or some sort (wedding) to indicate the couple’s new public status.

5 Courtship and Marriage Patterns
Mate Selection Informal Norms dictate who should marry who. Exogamy Norm requiring that mates be selected from outside one’s group or category Endogamy Norm requiring that mates be selected from one’s own group or category

6 Descent Societies around the world trace descent in various ways:
Patrilineal – father’s side Matrilineal – mother’s side Bilineal – father’s and mother’s side

7 Courtship and Marriage Patterns
Monogamy Marriage of one woman & one man Serial monogamy Polygamy Marriage to multiple spouses Polyandry and polygyny

8 Courtship and Marriage Patterns
Functions of the Family Defining and limiting sexual access Reproducing new members and integrating them into society Socializing new members Care of the young & the elderly Providing emotional support Providing ascribed statuses

9 The Functionalist Perspective
The family is universal because it fulfills certain functions including: sexual control, socialization, care of the sick and aged, recreation, economic production Talcott Parsons (1950) stated that men fulfill the instrumental role and women fulfill the expressive role in the family Dysfunctions include: incest, abuse, and divorce

10 The Conflict Perspective
The family is a reflection of the patriarchal society in which many societies live Families are arenas of conflict where members struggle for resources or power There are many dual earner families today but women still pull the “second shift” (Hoschild) leaving many women dissatisfied with their marriage 7 ½ to 11 hours a week than what their husbands contribute. The balance between power in marriages has led to the rising divorce rate


12 The Conflict Perspective
Strategies of resistance (Struggles over Household chores)—Hochschild (1989) Waiting it Out Playing Dumb Needs Reduction Substitute Offerings

13 The Symbolic Interactionist Perspective
Jesse Bernard – husbands and wives “see” their marriages in different lights which causes a lot of dissatisfaction Focus on “negotiating meanings” in marriage and families Looks at the meaning of housework Looks at the definition of family, marriage, and divorce has changed over the past 50 years

14 Dating and Mating Dating and Mate Selection Courtship Homogamy
Romantic love Marriage squeeze Propinquity Homogamy The selection of a mate with personal and social characteristics similar to one’s own. Heterogamy The selection of a mate with social characteristics different than one’s own

15 U.S. Families over the Life Course
Cohabitation Two people living together without legal marriage

16 U.S. Families over the Life Course
Singlehood Postponing marriage Widowhood and divorce

17 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2009
The Family Life Cycle Marital satisfaction tends to follow a U curve Marital satisfaction is at its highest points when couples first get married and at the retirement stage Marital satisfaction decreases with the arrival of the first child During the empty nest stage satisfaction increases 42 % of children ages are still living at home today and are often referred to as “the boomerang generation” Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2009

18 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2009
Trends in U.S. Families Grandparents as Parents – more grandparents are fulfilling the parental role as more parents are working Sandwich Generation – families who are taking care of their children and their parents at the same time; often this responsibility is taken on by the daughter’s Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2009

19 Divorce Rates increased dramatically in last 60 years
Marriage and Divorce Marriage Rates steady decline since early 1970s Divorce Rates increased dramatically in last 60 years

20 Divorce Divorce rates rose between 1950 and 1980 and since then the numbers have leveled off Divorce has increased because of: changing norms, less stigma, and governmental policies The effects of divorce on children are varied Serial Fatherhood – fathers who keep in contact with their children for about a year after a divorce, get remarried, and refocus their attention to the “new” family


22 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2009

23 The Dark Side of Family Life
Child Abuse – the majority of victims are children under the age of six The most common form of child abuse is neglect Other forms of child abuse are emotional and physical abuse Spousal Abuse – more men than women are the perpetrators of spousal abuse Women stay in abusive relationships for various reasons including: lack of resources, fear of retaliation, salvation ethnic, blaming themselves Police response to abuse has changed in recent years

24 The Bright Side of Successful Marriages
Studies of couples that have been married for 50 years indicate that there are several reasons for lasting happiness: Thinking of their spouse as their best friend They laugh together They share the same goals Think of marriage as being sacred Think of marriage as a long-term commitment

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