Presentation on theme: "THE FAMILY: BASIC CONCEPTS"— Presentation transcript:
1 THE FAMILY: BASIC CONCEPTS As sociologists, we are interested in studying human society and all its institutions. Among these institutions, the family remains the fundamental building block of the individual.Our families are the first and most pivotal agents of socialization, which aids our initiation and survival within a specific society. Families have been at the center of our personal and emotional lives from day one and whether or not you’re traveling away to school next year, they will remain a fundamental piece of your own sociological puzzle.
2 Generally, is defined as a social institution found in all societies that unites people in cooperative groups to oversee the bearing and raising of children.Family ties or are created in several ways:- a common ancestor (blood) - marriage - adoptionfamilykinships
3 The is a social group of two or more people, related by blood, marriage or adoption who usually live together.When you were born, you became a member of a ____________, a family which is composed of your parents and siblings.When you, yourself, decide to get married, you and your spouse will form a _______ in order to have or adopt your own children.family unitfamily of orientationfamily ofprocreation
4 THE FAMILY: GLOBAL VARIATIONS In the Western world, when we think of families we tend to focus our attention on the ______________. That is, a family unit composed of one or two parents and their children. Typically, this is the most recognized form of a family in the United States.nuclear family
5 Members of your extended family will usually include the following: Prior to the rise of industrialization, the ________________was often recognized as the typical family unit. The extended family consists of the members of the nuclear family (your parents and siblings) as well as other kin, usually connected by “shared blood”.Members of your extended family will usually include the following:Grandparents________________Cousinsextended familyAunts and Uncles
6 Throughout the world, families form around ________ which is the legally sanctioned relationship, usually involving economic cooperation as well as sexual activity and child bearing, that people expect to be enduring.marriage
7 MARRIAGE PATTERNSIn every society, marriage patterns often reflect the cultural norms of that particular society. In some cases, __________ is the preferred form of marriage.The marriage between people of the same social categoryLimits marriage prospects based on age, race, _______ and social classMaintains traditional social patternsendogamyreligion
8 _________ refers to marriage that unites three or more individuals. In other cases, ________ is the preferred form of marriage, uniting people of different social categories.Builds alliancesEncourages cultural diffusions__________ refers to the marriage of two individuals. This form of marriage is often used in industrialized societies._________ refers to marriage that unites three or more individuals.This form of marriage is often instituted for religious or economic reasons and it will take one of two of the following forms:exogamyMonogamyPolygamy
9 POLGAMY Polygyny many women Polyandry many men _________: marriage that unites one male and two or more females more common Greek for “_____________” Illegal in the United States but practiced in many Asian and African nations_________: marriage that united one female and two or more males less common/very rare Greek for “__________” connected to female infanticide; less women to go aroundPolygynymany womenPolyandrymany men
10 RESIDENTIAL PATTERNSJust as societies regulate mate selection, they also designate where a married couple will reside. In pre-industrial societies, couples often lived with one set of parents to obtain protection and economic assistance.
11 ______________: “place of the father”; residential pattern in which the married couple lives with or near the husband’s family. : “place of the mother”; residential pattern in which the married couple lives with or near the wife’s family. ______________: “new place”; residential pattern in which the married couple lives apart from both sets of parents.patrilocalitymatrilocalityneolocality
12 PATTERNS OF DESCENT, which refers to the system by which members of a society trace kinship over generations, is also a large piece of the structure of the family.There are ways which societies trace the descent of kinship.descentthree
13 Property inheritance and food ________________ is a system of tracing kinship through the men of the family.more common form of descentmen produce the most valued resources_______________________________________ is a system of tracing kinship through the women of the family.Less common form of descentWomen produce the most valued resources__________________________________Patrilineal descentprotection and foodMatrilineal descentProperty inheritance and food
14 _______________ is a system tracing kinship through both sides of the family (men and women). Common in industrial societies with great gender equalitiesChildren recognize both father’s and mother’s sides as familybilateral descent