Presentation on theme: "Chapter Preview 1 Chapter Preview · Section 1 Family and Marriage Across Cultures (pages 348–356) In all societies, the family has been the most important."— Presentation transcript:
Chapter Preview 1 Chapter Preview · Section 1 Family and Marriage Across Cultures (pages 348–356) In all societies, the family has been the most important institution. It produces new generations, socializes the young, provides care and affection, regulates sexual behavior, transmits social status, and provides economic support.
A.A B.B C.C D.D Section 1-Polling Question Do you feel your family has played a large role in your life? A.Very much so B.Somewhat C.Not very much D.Not at all
Section 1 Defining the Family Family is defined as a group of people related by marriage, blood, or adoption.Family The family is a complex social unit with many facets, and no other social institution has a greater impact on the life and behavior of the individual. The family we are born or adopted into is called the family of orientation and it gives the child an ascribed status. The family of procreation is established upon marriage.
Section 1 Defining the Family (cont.) Marriage is a legal union between a man and a woman based on mutual rights and obligations.Marriage
A.A B.B C.C D.D Section 1 What reasons define a family in today’s society? A.Parents and children B.People related by blood C.Marriage D.All of the above
Section 1 Two Basic Types of Families The nuclear family—parents or parent and any children. It is the smallest group that can be called a family.nuclear family The extended family—two or more adult generations of the same family whose members share economic resources and live in the same household.extended family The family structure has changed over the years depending on the type of society.
A.A B.B C.C D.D Section 1 In the earliest societies, how important was extended family for survival? A.Very important B.Somewhat important C.Not very important D.Not important at all
Section 1 Patterns of Family Structure Depending on the arrangement, inheritance varies: –Patrilineal—descent and inheritance are passed from the father to his male descendents.Patrilineal –Matrilineal—descent and inheritance are transmitted from the mother to her female descendents.Matrilineal –Bilateral—descent and inheritance are passed equally through both parents.Bilateral
Section 1 Patterns of Family Structure (cont.) –Patriarchy—the oldest man living in the household has authority over the rest of the family.Patriarchy –Matriarchy—the oldest woman living in the household holds authority.Matriarchy –Equalitarian—authority is split evenly between husband and wife.Equalitarian Authority also differs:
Section 1 Patterns of Family Structure (cont.) Where newlyweds live also varies depending on the culture: –Patrilocal—they live near the husband’s family.Patrilocal –Matrilocal—they live near the wife’s family.Matrilocal –Neolocal—married couples establish residences of their own.Neolocal
A.A B.B C.C D.D Section 1 How many patterns of family structures are there within the United States? A.Three B.Six C.Nine D.Twelve
Section 1 Marriage Arrangements Monogamy is the marriage of one man to one woman and is most widely practiced in the world.Monogamy Serial monogamy—having several husbands or wives, but being married to only one at a time. Polygamy is the marriage of one male or female to more than one person at a time.Polygamy
Section 1 Marriage Arrangements (cont.) Polygyny—the marriage of one man to two or more women at the same time.Polygyny Polyandry—the marriage of one woman to two or more men at the same time.Polyandry Percentage of Women Aged 15–19 Ever Married
World View Percentage of Women Aged 15–19 Ever Married Source: United Nations Statistics Division, 2005.
A.A B.B C.C D.D Section 1 Do you feel that marriage is a necessary institution? A.Very much so B.Somewhat C.A little D.Not at all
Section 1 Choosing a Mate Exogamy refers to mate-selection norms requiring individuals to marry someone outside their kind or group.Exogamy Incest taboos forbid marriage between certain kinds of relatives.Incest taboos Endogamy involves mate-selection norms that require individuals to marry within their own kind.Endogamy Mixed Marriages and Intergroup Married Couples in the United States
Section 1 Choosing a Mate (cont.) Mixed marriages are becoming more frequent. Class lines are also being crossed. Norms separating age and religion are weakening. People tend to marry those with social characteristics similar to their own, also referred to as homogamy.homogamy
Figure 11.2 Source: American Demographics, Population Reference Bureau, 1998; Miliken Institute, 2001. Mixed Marriages and Intergroup Married Couples in the United States
Section 1 Choosing a Mate (cont.) However, heterogamy, a marriage between partners who have dissimilar characteristics, is rising.heterogamy
A.A B.B C.C D.D Section 1 The following are reasons for heterogamous marriages EXCEPT A.Traditional barriers are being crossed. B.Class lines are being crossed. C.The laws preventing heterogamy have changed. D.T.V. and film have fostered this change.