Presentation on theme: "Chapter 18 – Southern Africa Section Notes Physical Geography History and Culture Southern Africa Today Video Impact of Apartheid Images Geography History."— Presentation transcript:
Chapter 18 – Southern Africa Section Notes Physical Geography History and Culture Southern Africa Today Video Impact of Apartheid Images Geography History Focus on Culture: Music of South Africa Biography: Nelson Mandela Baobab Trees Quick Facts Chapter 18 Visual Summary Maps Southern Africa: Political Southern Africa: Physical Southern Africa: Vegetation Southern Africa Madagascar: Climate World Almanac Tourism in Southern Africa Close-up Cape Town
Main Idea 1: Southern Africa’s main physical feature is a large plateau with plains, rivers, and mountains. Grassy plains run along the coast and cover the plateau. The plains are home to lions, leopards, elephants, baboons, and antelope. Plateaus and Mountains Most of Southern Africa lies on a large plateau. –An escarpment, the steep face at the edge of a plateau, runs along this plateau. In the east, part of the escarpment is made up of the Drakensberg Mountains. Other mountains can be found in the northeast and the southwest. Plains
Rivers of Southern Africa The Okavango River flows out of Angola to form a swampy delta in Botswana that is home to many animals. The Orange River in South Africa flows over many waterfalls before it reaches the Atlantic. The Limpopo River flows to the Indian Ocean. Waterfalls and other obstacles prevent ships from sailing up the river.
Savanna and Desert Tropical Forests Open grasslands cover much of the region. In South Africa, they are called the veld. The Namib Desert is the driest place in the region. It receives as little as one half inch of rain each year. The Kalahari Desert of Botswana features sandy plains and pans, or low, flat areas. Found in Madagascar, which is known for its lush vegetation Contains animals not found anywhere else in the world, such as lemurs Main Idea 2: The climate and vegetation of Southern Africa is mostly savanna and desert.
Main Idea 3: Southern Africa has valuable mineral resources. Rich in natural resources: Madagascar has timber. Rivers provide hydroelectricity. Farmers grow a variety of crops. South Africa produces most of the world’s gold. South Africa, Botswana, and Namibia produce diamonds. Other minerals include coal, platinum, copper, uranium, and iron ore. Mining is very important to the economy, but it can be very damaging to the environment.
Main Idea 1: Southern Africa’s history began with hunter-gatherers, followed by great empires and European settlements. The Khoisan were among the earliest people in Southern Africa. They were hunter-gatherers and herders. The Shona, a Bantu group, built an empire in the 1400s. –The Shona farmed, raised cattle, and traded gold. –They also built Great Zimbabwe, a stone-walled town that was their capital. Great Zimbabwe was the center of a great trading network. –Trade made the city’s rulers rich and powerful. –The Shona traded with people as far away as China and the East Coast of Africa. In the 1400s the gold trade declined. By 1500 Great Zimbabwe was no longer a major trading center.
Europeans in Southern Africa Dutch The Portuguese were the first to explore Southern Africa. The Dutch were the first to actually settle in the area. They set up a trade station near the Cape of Good Hope. Afrikaners and Boers Afrikaners were descendants of Dutch, French, and German settlers in South Africa. They developed a language called Afrikaans. The Boers were Afrikaner farmers who were forced north by the British. British As the British forced the Boers to move, they came into conflict with a Bantu group called the Zulu. The British defeated the Zulu in a long series of battles. The slave trade ended in the 1830s.
Modern History Apartheid In the early 1900s South Africa’s government became increasingly racist. Nearly all officials were white. The government set up a policy of separation called apartheid. Apartheid placed restrictions on how people could live. For example, black South Africans were made to live in tiny clusters of homes called townships. Independence Beginning in the 1960s many former colonies gained independence. Some countries won their freedom peacefully. Others had to fight for it. Namibia remained under the control of South Africa until 1990.
Main Idea 2: The cultures of Southern Africa are rich in different languages, religions, customs, and art. Most languages belong to either the Khoisan or Bantu language families. Khoisan languages are known for the click sounds they include. More than 200 Bantu languages are spoken today. English is also common. People Hundreds of ethnic groups Some ethnic groups, such as the Zulu and the Tswana, are very large. Other groups are small and not native to Africa. Languages
Southern African Culture South Africans celebrate many holidays: –Heritage Day celebrates the country’s diversity. –Christian holidays such as Christmas The region’s art reflects its many cultures. –South African artists paint ethnic designs. –Artists in Lesotho make tapestries. –Artists in Zimbabwe make stone statues. –Artists in Botswana make ostrich eggshell beadwork. Religion Europeans introduced Christianity to the region, and many people today are Christian. Most non-Christians in the region practice traditional religions. Celebrations and Art
Main Idea 1: South Africa ended apartheid and now has a stable government and strong economy. Other countries put sanctions, or economic and political penalties, on South Africa to convince the government to end apartheid. People within South Africa also protested against apartheid. In the 1980s the government began to move away from its apartheid system. It released political prisoners, including Nelson Mandela, who was elected president in 1994. Today all races have equal rights in South Africa. Everyone is free to attend any school or university. However, not everyone is equal economically yet. White South Africans are still generally wealthier than black South Africans.
South Africa Today South Africa has more resources and industry than most African countries. World’s largest producer of several valuable minerals—gold, platinum, and chromium Large cities also contribute to the economy: –Johannesburg has Africa’s largest industrial area. –Cape Town attracts many tourists. Government Republic with an elected president Many officials are working to guarantee both political and economic equality for all races in South Africa. Economy
Lesotho and Swaziland Namibia Enclaves, small territories surrounded by foreign land Lesotho has few resources, so it is a poor country. Swaziland has mineral resources and cattle. Gained independence from South Africa in 1990 Now a republic with its capital at Windhoek Some of Africa’s richest mineral deposits are in Namibia’s deserts. Despite these resources, most people are poor. Main Idea 2: Some countries of Southern Africa have good resources and economies, but several are still struggling.
Botswana Zimbabwe Mineral resources (especially diamonds), stable government, cattle ranching, and tourism have led to economic success. One of the world’s fastest growing economies Unemployment remains high. Zimbabwe has resources, but inflation and war have severely hurt the economy. Whites make up less than 1 percent of the population, but own most of the land. The government is working to fix this problem by taking land from white farmers and giving it to black residents. Other Countries of Southern Africa
Mozambique Madagascar One of the world’s poorest countries due to years of civil war Industries include shipping and agriculture Was ruled for more than 20 years by a socialist dictator Now has an elected president who wants to improve the economy Most of the country’s income comes from exporting coffee, vanilla, sugar, and cloves and from tourism. Other Countries of Southern Africa Comoros Four tiny islands with few resources Struggling to improve education and promote tourism
Main Idea 3: Southern African governments are responding to issues and challenges such as drought, disease, and environmental destruction. One of the most serious challenges facing the region is poverty. Droughts often destroy food crops. In addition, many people are unemployed, so they have no way to escape poverty. Disease is also a problem. Many people in the region are infected with HIV. Governments are working to stop the spread of this disease. Many countries also face environmental challenges. For example, deforestation is a major problem in Madagascar. –Countries are working to solve these problems. Namibia was the first country in the world to include environmental protection in its constitution.