2 Beginning of Product Labeling 1939, the Wool Products Labeling Act was passed which stated that all types of wool (virgin and recycled) must be labeled1951, the Fur Products Labeling Act required that the name of the animal and country of origin must be on a label attached to the item.1953, the Flammable Fabrics Act stated that fabric or clothing that would be so flammable that it would be dangerous to wear must not be sold.
3 Textile Fiber Products Identification Act (TFPIA) Effective on March 3, 1960Fiber Generic Name OnlyThe United States, the District of Columbia, and the Territories and possessions of the United States.Amended on February 1, 1981Label now requires:Fiber contentCountry of originManufacturer or dealer identityUnited Piece Dye Works 1964
4 Fiber Content Listed by generic fiber names Percentages of each fiber by weightDescending orderTrade names (trademarks) may be in includedGeneric name must be available on the label with the same appearance as the trade name.
5 Generic Fiber Names These are the man-made, generic fiber names (with subclasses) that the Federal Trade Commissionstates may be included in a product label:Acetate (Triacetate)AcrylicAnidexAramidAzlonElastoesterFluoropolymerGlassMelamineMetallicModacrylicNovoloidNylonNytrilOlefin (Lastol or CEF)PBIPLAPolyester (Elasterell-p)Rayon (Lyocell)Rubber (Lastrile)SaranSpandexSulfarVinalVinyon
6 Other Generic Fiber Names These generic fibers are not listedin the Textile, Wool and Fur Acts and Rules,but may be used:AlginateCarbonChlorofibreCuproElastaneElastodieneFluorofibreMetal FibreModalPolyamidePolyethylenePolyimidePolypropyleneVinylalViscose.
7 Items not included in label Non-fibrous materialsGlassLeatherMetalPaintPlasticWoodItems that are used on the garment that are not made from fabric, yarn or fiber.BeadsButtonsSequinsZippers.
8 Unknown FibersIf any of the fibers of a product are unknown, they must be labeled as “unknown” and with a percentage.Product labels may list fiber content even if it is not required.If a product is not required to have a label, but mentions a fiber used in their product, it must have a label with fiber percentages.
9 PercentagesFibers that make up at least 5% of the percentage weight must be listedAny fiber that is less than 5% and has a significant effect on the product must be listed.Spandex is the common example because only a small amount of Spandex is needed to create an elastic effect.If there are several other fibers that make up an amount greater than 5%, but do not change the characteristics of the product, they may be listed all together as “Other Fibers.”
10 - Textiles: Fiber to Fabric, 1967 MislabelingProducts are considered mislabeled:If they have fibers that should be labeled and are not mentionedFibers, their trade names, and their percentages do not all have the same appearanceNo information about a fiber may be falsified in any product.“Two fabrics whose labels guaranteed product was genuine in name and fiber content. Because of patents, imitators had to use different fiber percentages.”- Textiles: Fiber to Fabric, 1967
11 3% Tolerance Based on the inconsistency in the manufacturing process For example, if a product states that it is 80% cotton and it is only 78% or 79%, it is within the 3% tolerance.The 3% tolerance is only for companies that unknowingly have differences in fiber contentPurposeful mislabeling is unlawful.
12 Ornamentation/TrimOrnamentation is created by fibers or yarns and only must be listed if it makes up more than 5% of the fiber weight of the fabric.Trims are different from ornamentation and must be labeled only if they cover more than 15% of the surface area of the product, and are made from a different fiber.A superimposed fiber is an extra fiber added to a particular part of a product for function and must be mentioned on the label with fiber and percentage.If the fiber content in one section of a structural part of a garment (not ornamentation) is different from another section, it must be labeled.
13 Acrylic and Polyester Pile Fabric Special FibersPile fabrics that are made from different fibers must be labeled.Biconstituent fibers are a mixture of two or more manufactured fibers that are combined and extruded into a yarn and must be labeled.Premium cotton fibers (Pima, Egyptian, or Sea Island) must be labeled with their percentages anywhere on the garment that the premium name is used.Acrylic and Polyester Pile FabricSynthetic FibersPima Cotton
14 Wool ProductsAll wool products, in the whole garment or the lining, must also be listed in product care labels, no matter the percentageWool fibers are those made from sheep or lamb.Virgin productsRecycled products.Angora goat, Cashmere goat, camel, alpaca, llama, or vicuna are also considered to be wool fibers, but must be labeled with their specific name in a care label and if they are recycled.
15 Linings/Interlinings Linings, interlinings, fillings and paddings need to be listed if they are for warmthNo listed for structural purposes in fiber or non-fiber garments (leather, rubber, etc)When they are listed, they must be listed separately from the outer part of the garment, even if they are made from the same fiber
16 Country of OriginFinished stage that are ready for sale to a consumer.Textile products onlyZippers, buttons or other components do not need to be labeledThe FTC does not require a partially made garment to be labeled, but the US Customs Service may require the item to be labeled with the country of origin.Label all construction component locationsAll disclosure information must be the same size, and labeling must be in English.
17 “Made in”A fabric that is made in England may be shipped to the United States to be constructed.For that product, the label may state “Made in the USA,” but must include with it “of fabric made in England,” or “of imported fabric.”The FTC does not require that a product to state where it is imported from, but must state that it is “imported.”US Customs may require that “England” be listed.
18 “Made in the USA”In a label with multiple countries, one country may not be larger or apart from another country.All disclosures are to be the same size.If a product states that it is “Made in the USA,” it must be made from start to finish in the United States, exclusive of fibers and yarns.If there is any part that is not made in the U. S., it must be labeled.
19 Manufacturer/DealerThe company name of the manufacturer, importer, or dealer must be listed or their Register Identification Number (RN).An RN is a number that is issued to companies within the U. S. only, which registers them with the FTC.This number is not required for a company to do business, but some companies may require the company they are dealing with to have an RN.The letters “RN” are listed before the number for easy identification.For wool, the FTC previously issued Wool Products Labeling (WPL) numbers that some companies still use today. The FTC is now issuing only Registered Identification Numbers.
20 Products that must be labeled ClothingfibersyarnsfabricshandkerchiefsscarvesUmbrellasHome accessoriesBeddingCurtains/draperiesTablecloths/napkinsFloor coveringsTowelsIroning board coversBattingFlagsCushionsslip coversBlanketsSleeping bagsDoiliesHammocksFurniture scarves.Items that are packaged need to have product information visible, whether seen on the garment through a clear package or directly on the package.Hosiery does not need to be labeled separately, but T-shirts must be labeled separately.Socks, mittens, gloves and linens must have one part that is labeled if sold in a set.
21 Placement of LabelsThe fiber content, country of origin and manufacturer may appear on one label or on different labels.The fiber content and manufacturer may appear on the back of the label.The country of origin must be on the front of the label either placed at the neck or the waistband of a garment.Fiber content and manufacturer must be attached in easy reach.Placement along the neck, waistband or side seam of a garment is acceptable.Product labels are not required to be permanently attached
22 Care Labeling RulingIn 1972, the FTC established the Care Labeling Rule which specified that clothing labels must carry information about washing, dry cleaning and pressing.The Care Labeling Rule was updated on September 1, 2000New definitions of “hot, warm and cold” waterConsistent with definitions used by the American Association of Textile Chemists and Colorists (AATCC)
23 What is a Care Label?A care label as defined by the Federal Trade Commission (2000) means “a permanent label or tag, containing regular care information and instructions, that is attached or affixed in such a manner that it will not become separated from the product and will remain legible during the useful life of the product.” (p. 1)The term “label” includes a label, stamp, tag, or other types of identification.
24 Products that do and do not Require Care Labeling Clothing worn to cover or protect the body except for shoes, gloves, and hats.Home apparel items should be labeled except trim less than 5 inches wide and fabric shorter than 10 yards long.Items that do not cover the body, for example, neckties and belts, are not included.Any non-woven item that is only used once does not need to have a care label.
25 WashableIf a product is washable it must state whether it can be washed by hand or by machine.Include the water temperature appropriate for the product.
26 BleachIf a product can handle any type of bleach (chlorine or oxygen bleach) on a regular basis, it does not need to be mentioned in the label.If chlorine bleach would harm a product, it must be included in the label “Only non-Chlorine Bleach.”If any type of bleach would harm a garment, the label must state “Do Not Bleach.”
27 DryingIf a product is to be dried it must state whether it should be dried by machine or some other method.The temperature is not required, unless it would be damaged by high temperatures.
28 Ironing If a product is to be ironed regularly, it must be labeled. Temperature of the iron is not necessary, unless a high temperature would harm the product.
29 WarningsAny kind of care method that would harm a product must be mentioned on the care label using words like “Do not,” “No,” and “Only.”Any care to the product that will affect appearance after care must be stated.Any care that may cause harm to another product must be included on the label.
30 Dry-cleaningThe words “dry-clean” may be placed on a care label with no other instruction if any dry-cleaning solvent can be used without damage to the garment.If only a certain type of solvent may be used, that must be labeled.If a garment can be washed without damage, it may not say “dry-clean only”
31 WetcleaningWetcleaning is a new method of cleaning using water-based chemicals that has not been perfected, but claims to be environmentally safeThe term “professionally wetclean” was not included in the Care Label Ruling in 2000 because a standard for wetcleaning could not be set.
32 Care Labeling Guidelines Companies must provide a permanent label that gives regular care instructions for a garment that will not harm the garment.These labels may only include words; symbols are not necessary.Symbols may be used without words, but they must be defined on a hang tag.Companies must prove that the care methods are correct by testing garments before they are sold.A care label may be on the reverse side of a product label.
33 Violators of TFPIA and Care Labeling Ruling A company which violates any labeling rules may be:Asked to stop the practice which violates the actPay up to $11,000 for each violation