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Issues with the Articles of Confederation:

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1 Issues with the Articles of Confederation:
Weak federal government, power rested with the states Congress could not tax Congress could not regulate trade between the states Congress could not make states obey trade treaties with foreign nations Each state had only one vote No Executive branch No Court system Needed 9 of 13 votes to pass laws Needed all 13 state votes to amend

2 Shay’s Rebellion Falling crop prices hurt MA farmers, many of whom fought in Revolutionary War Farmers wrote to Legislature for lower taxes and no more foreclosures but were ignored Daniel Shays led hundreds to courthouses to scare bankruptcy judges but rebellion was crushed when small army was sent to restore order Disorder got many people thinking if this nation was ungovernable under the Articles Representatives from five states met in Annapolis, Maryland to discuss trade issues Congress invited all 13 states to Philadelphia “for the sole and express purpose of revising the Articles of Confederation.”

3 Delegates to the Convention: 55 delegates from 12 states
They had more political experience that any comparable gathering of leaders of any newly independent nation at any time in history President: George Washington Delaware: John Dickinson Virginia: James Madison, Edmund Randolph South Carolina:Charles Pinckney Connecticut: Roger Sherman New York: Alexander Hamilton New Jersey: William Paterson Pennsylvania: Ben Franklin, Gouvenor Morris Rhode Island did not send a representative “the home of the otherwise minded Research a delegate

4 Agreed: National Government with 3 branches
Debates: Should representatives in legislature be determined by population or should each state have an equal number of votes If representation is based on population, how should slaves be counted; as property or people? How should we elect a chief executive? How can we keep one branch from getting more powerful than another What powers should the national government have What powers should stay with states

New Jersey Plan Each state gets an equal number of representatives Small States plan William Paterson Proposals Compromise Representation in Senate based on NEW JERSEY plan, Representation in House based on VIRGINIA plan two-house legislature Roger Sherman Problem: How should states be represented in Congress Virginia Plan Base representation on population larger states get more representatives Edmund Randolph

6 Compromise V Three-Fifths Compromise
How do slaves count for population 1. In House of Representatives Direct Taxes to national government Northern States had few slaves Slaves should not count for representation in the House but should count for taxes Southern States had a large slave population Slaves should count for representation in the House but not for taxes V Compromise three out of every five slaves would be counted in the population of a state for representation in the House and for taxes

7 More Issues over Slavery
A. Slave Trade North Congress should regulate trade between states and foreign countries South Congress might use power to regulate trade to tax their exports and stop slave trade Commerce Compromise Congress could regulate trade between states and with foreign countries. Congress could tax imports but not exports and could not stop slave trade until 1808 B. Runaway Slaves Could not get freedom by running to a free state. They would be sent back. Count the words

8 United States Constitution the highest law in the land
Article 1 Sections Aricle 2 Sections 1 - 4 Article 3 Sections 1 - 3 Judicial Branch JUDGES the laws Executive Branch ENFORCES the laws Legislative Branch makes the LAWS Two Houses Senate Each state has 2 reps N.J. House of Reps based on population VA Article 4 - Relations among States Article 5 -Amending the Constitution Article 6 - National Debts, Supremacy of National Laws, Oaths Article 7 - Ratification AMENDMENTS

9 Legislative Branch Makes laws
Senate House of Representatives 2 elected representative from each state Must be 30 years old, a citizen for 9 years and live in the state they represent Serve for six years V.P is President of Senate Elects a president-pro-tempore to preside when V.P. is absent Number of representatives from each state is based on population, which is why the country has a census every 10 years Must be 25 years old, a citizen for 7 years, and live in the state they represent Serve for 2 years Elects a Speaker as the President of the House Powers: Checks & Balance: Tax Can override a Presidential veto with 2/3 vote Borrow Money Can impeach or remove a President Regulate Trade with foreign nations and states Can refuse to appoint a presidential nominee Establish weights and measures Can refuse to ratify a presidential treaty Punish counterfeiting Declare War Create an army and navy Can refuse to confirm a judicial nominee Establish a postal service Can propose a constitutional Amendment Coin money Can impeach or remove judges

10 Executive Branch Enforces Laws
President: Vice President: Cabinet 35 years old President of Senate Secretary of State a born citizen Succeeds the President serve a total of 10 yrs Serve a total of 10 yrs Secretary of Defense Electoral College Electoral College Secretary of Treasury Powers: Checks and Balances Commander – in – Chief of Military Veto Bills Make Treaties with foreign nations Call Special Session of Congress Makes annual report on the state of the nation once a year Recommend Laws Appoints cabinet, ambassadors, and Supreme Court Justices Appoints Supreme Court Justices Grants reprieves or delays punishment of crimes against the U.S Grants Pardons

11 Judicial Branch Judges Laws
District and Appeals Courts Supreme Court 9 Justices appointed for life Powers Hear cases about Constitution, federal laws, or treaties Hear cases involving ambassadors, shipping, or disputes between states Hear cases of suits brought by citizens against other countries Hears cases involving Treason CHECKS & BALANCES Can declare laws unconstitutional Can rule that laws of executive acts are unconstitutional Presides over impeachment trials

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