Presentation on theme: "1 Revise for GCSE History: A Divided Union? The USA, 1941-80 This is the fifth of six revision topics. The impact of the Second World War McCarthyism and."— Presentation transcript:
1 Revise for GCSE History: A Divided Union? The USA, 1941-80 This is the fifth of six revision topics. The impact of the Second World War McCarthyism and the “Red Scare” Civil Rights in the USA, 1941-80 The “New Frontier” and the “Great Society” Protest movements in the 1960s and 1970s The Watergate Scandal and its impact Lyndon B. Johnson Jimmy Carter
2 Revise for GCSE History: A Divided Union? The USA, 1941-80 There are six sections to this topic. Why did the Student Movement emerge? How did the Student Movement campaign? How was the Student Movement important? How did the women’s movement emerge? What did the women’s movement achieve? How did the women’s movement develop?.
3 Revise for GCSE History: A Divided Union? The USA, 1941-80 Why did the Student Movement emerge? Legacy of teenage rebellion from the 1950s. Frustration and anger. Desire to right perceived wrongs. Demands for greater freedom in the “swinging sixties” Popular protest music, like Bob Dylan. Sexual liberation as a result of the contraceptive pill. Idealism inspired by JF Kennedy. Anger at JFK’s assassination. Influence of ML King and the Civil Rights Movement: that it was an issue worth supporting and as an example of successful mass protest. US involvement in the Vietnam War: that it was essentially immoral and because of the draft of young Americans. Worldwide phenomenon: student protests in Northern Ireland and Paris.
4 Revise for GCSE History: A Divided Union? The USA, 1941-80 How did the Student Movement campaign? The SDS (Students for a Democratic Society) greater say in how their courses were run, later became involved in helping the poor, membership increased because of the war in Vietnam. Organised sit-ins. Students became involved in the Civil Rights marches Opposition to the Vietnam War Mass protests and marches, reaching a peak in 1968-70. Draft cards burnt and sometimes the US flag. Led to public resentment. Kent State (picture) 4 killed, 11 injured by National Guardsmen. 400 Colleges closed, 2 million students on strike. Weathermen: more violent, bombed recruitment centres and govt. buildings. Hippy Movement: protested by “dropping out” with an alternative lifestyle. Refusal to work, drug culture (LSD, marijuana), rejection of traditional values.
5 Revise for GCSE History: A Divided Union? The USA, 1941-80 How was the Student Movement important? Youth culture was influenced by a belief in self-expression and sexual permissiveness. Vietnam: protests by the SDS did not end the war in Vietnam, but they did change government policy, made withdrawal more likely and led LBJ not to seek re-election. Racism: helped to end racism. Strengthened to impact of the Civil Rights movement. The middle class origins of the movement shocked many older people.
6 Revise for GCSE History: A Divided Union? The USA, 1941-80 How did the women’s movement emerge? Middle class women challenge their traditional role as mother and homemaker. Frustration and boredom as affluence increased. Children had left home, unable to follow careers. Influenced by changing attitudes in the “swinging sixties”. Women were better educated, but once married were expected to give up their careers. 1960s: more women in part time work, but second class status in jobs and paid less than men for the same work. Betty Friedan “The Feminine Mystique” argued that women should challenge the mystique that they should be satisfied as housewife and mother. Bringing up a family should be a shared role, allowing women to follow a career. 1966 Betty Friedan sets up NOW (National Organisation for Women)
7 Revise for GCSE History: A Divided Union? The USA, 1941-80 What did the women’s movement achieve? 1963 Equal Pay Act Women to be paid the same as men. Did not prevent initial discrimination during appointments. 1964 Civil Rights Act Illegal to discriminate on grounds of gender. Equal Opportunities Commission did not take gender seriously. 1966 NOW Mainly middle class women. 66-71 secured back pay owed to women. Methods too moderate and slow. Hard to prove discrimination in courts. 1972 Educational Amendment Act Discrimination illegal. More career opportunities. It took a long time for change. 1972 Supreme Court Ruled US constitution men and women equal. Many opponents refused to accept this.
8 Revise for GCSE History: A Divided Union? The USA, 1941-80 How did the women’s movement develop? Women’s Liberation More radical than NOW. Feminists. Actively challenged discrimination. Some wanted to remove all male supremacy. Burned bras for publicity. 1968 picketed Miss America in Atlantic City. Extreme activities did more harm than good. Campaign to legalise abortion Challenge through courts. Rose v Wade case, won the right to have an abortion. Opposition to the Women’s Movement NOW dominated by middle class females, Women’s Liberation Movement too extreme, Some women, who agreed with the traditional role, some women were anti-abortion, Did not do enough to help poor women. Phyllis Schafly: STOP ERA delayed the introduction of the Equal Rights Amendment until 1982, as it would require women to serve in combat situations.