Presentation on theme: "Low-cost, electricity generating heat engines for rural areas"— Presentation transcript:
1 Low-cost, electricity generating heat engines for rural areas International ConferenceLow-cost, electricity generating heat engines for rural areasPaul H. Riley Conference ChairScore Project Director
2 1.4 Billion without Electricity 3 Billion people cook on open fireIndian Sub continentSub Saharan Africa … the WorldInternational Conference to bring together key people providing solutions to share novel ideas
3 International Conference Thanks to Mr Vincenzo Raimo, Director International OfficeKeynote speakersDr Grace MukasaCountry Director PA KenyaMr Kees deBlokCEO, Aster Thermoakoestische Systemen, The NetherlandsPresenters theme’sSocial requirements and field experienceSystem DesignThermo-Acoustic EnginesGeneral Heat EnginesPosters and manufacturersDelegates~ 50 people attendingContinents of Africa, Asia, Indian subcontinent, North and South America, Europe
4 Score-Stove ™Low-cost, smoke-free cooking with wood or dung, generating electricity for rural areas.
5 Score project 5 year project Social science Requirements capture £2m award, started 2007Social scienceNeedsImpactInhibitorsRequirements captureTechnicalFinancialSocialThermo-AcousticsAppropriate manufactureInvestigate requirements for large scale manufacture>10 M per year
6 Consortium (core team) University of NottinghamLead, Linear Alternator, management, exploitationCity University LondonDesign, development and analysis of low cost stove enclosures. Wood fuelled stove testing with and without TAEUniversity of LeicesterThermo-acoustics, rigs, PIVQueen Mary University of LondonSystem design, requirements documentation, demonstratorPractical ActionRequirements capture, Social science research, field trials
7 Licenses available for developed world StrategyScore CentresMalaysia, Bangladesh, Jaipur, Kenya, Nepal, UgandaLocal community engagementScore Core TeamResearch dissemination commercialisationScore Community21 Collaboration agreementsScore Partner organisationsIntellectual property given free to developing countries, in return for Score owning improvements.Licenses available for developed world
8 The need 1.4 billion have no electricity Many stove designs The rest intermittent: load sheddingMany stove designsInsufficient impactneed billions, not 100’s thousandsUnderstanding social context is keyPoverty < $2 per dayMotivation, e.g. mobile phoneLow power, 25W makes a difference, 100 W better.Familiarity with local culturePhotographs courtesy Practical Action
9 Market Survey (from Score Project) Typical Nepalese houseTarget cost*Between £20 and £60In large quantities enables1.2 B to 60 M peopleBUT…………………………..* 2007 prices
10 Affordability Cheapest solution is not the most affordable The right packaged solution makes it more attractive.Stop using kerosene for lighting.Torches etc. mean kerosene use > zeroTypical kerosene cost = £15 to £30 paUse of LED lights, low maintenance,cost decreasing due to learner curve.Need easy-to-use way to monitor electricitySo that carbon credits can be claimed.Low cost entry point uses low capacity battery.Many devices (mobile phones) can be charged during cooking
11 Generating stove goals ReduceWood consumptionSmoke inhalationImproveHealthReduced smokeimproved understanding of modern medicinePreservation of prescription drugs (cooling)Education, by means of electricitylight at nightaccess to knowledge through mobile phone and computerRadio and TVWealthBetter educationAccess to improved farming methods and commodity pricesBusiness opportunities (sales and maintenance, selling electricity)
12 The Score Stove Goal For £20 - £60 it will Can burn Generate electricity.Be affordable.Be Smoke free.Reduces emissions.Can burnWood or Dungother biomasspropane and kerosene.help 3 billion rural peoplesave 10 Mt Carbon per yearScore intervention in Nepal. 10 and 20We simulated.
13 Is Score useful? Simulated Score Stove Satisfaction 35 houses in Nepal and Kenya10 – 20 W electricalNo smoke, less woodSatisfaction100% used electricity for lighting helping education, social80% used for radio33% mobile phone charging16% sold electricityInterest from Developed worldKTP with Warrior Stoves (UK) awardedCHPBenefit can be gained from as little as 15We, longer term 100We targeted.
14 Technology optionsThere is no doubt that a reliable smoke-free cooking stove that generates electricity, reduces fuel consumption and is affordable, will sell in the 100’s millions and give great benefit.What technologies can meet these requirements?Erikson cycleStirling engineSteam engineSolar plus clean cooking stoveThermo-AcousticThermo-Electric (Thermopile)
15 Business Case model Available on memory stick is an Excel™ model The model shows a business case at 3 levelsThe HouseholdVillage Store, or shopCountry or large regionPico HydroIs cheapest solution, where availableFalls behind at regional level as coverage is limitedPV solarNeeds to operate in monsoon season (reduced light)Needs smoke free stove as wellAssumptionsCan be varied to benchmark different scenarios and technologiesAre designed to show consistency across different optionsFeedback from your technology area is welcome
19 Score Status April 2012 Thermo-Acoustic technology chosen Research phase and dissemination completedAdditional awards made (totalling £0.5M)KTS, KTP, centre establishment, Follow on funds.Significant free support (people’s time)Score Community running since 2008.City University achieved record of 23We for wood burning TAE.Scientific (instrumented) rigs builtLeicester and Queen Mary University of London8 demonstrators built, 8 on orderCost reduction planOne off demonstrators£2500 in UK, £750 with low labour cost,In 100k pa volume£150 RR audit, £60 with manufacturing improvementsMore research needed to hit £20 target
20 Next Steps Increase output to 50We, then 100We 4 companies interested in manufacture at 50WeSupporting Score CentresComplete cooling work at LeicesterSponsorshipField trialsManufacturersDissemination eventBenchmark with other technologiesForm future collaborations
21 AcknowledgementsThe Score project is funded by EPSRC, the UK Engineering and Physical Research Council.Thanks to the Score TeamProfessor Chris Lawn, Dr Catherine GardnerQueen Mary University London,Professor Artur Jaworski, Dr Zhibin Yu, Ms Patcharin SaechanUniversity of LeicesterProfessor Keith Pullen and Dr Ron DennisCity University LondonDr Teo SanchezPractical ActionProfessor Mark Johnson, Dr David Hann, Dr Chitta Saha and Mr Lijo GeorgeMy Nottingham colleaguesAster Technology the Netherlands,Mr Kees deBlokScore Centre MalaysiaDr Yousif Abakr, Mr Baiman Chen, Mr David WeeThe numerous members of the Score CommunityEspecially Mark Loweth
26 Score ObjectivesContribute to increasing wealth and education and improving health in developing countries by investigating appropriate and affordable novel technology to meet the energy needs of isolated rural communities in developing countries. This technology is designated, SCORE, the Stove for Cooking, Refrigeration and Electricity supply.Develop a Project Network, comprising academics from both the research team and local universities acting as knowledge hubs in the target countries, charities and non-government organisations, government representative and the local communities themselves. Exchange and focus the scientific, technological and social knowledge required by SCORE. Promote SCORE worldwide and provide a database of end-user requirements and product applicationsPlan and create the mechanisms for implementation of SCORE by identifying barriers to implementation and proposing solutions, forming collaborations within the developing countries, developing training strategy and suitable training materials, encouraging the acquisition of matching funding, promoting the building of local manufacturing capacity, and highlighting the wider business opportunities of SCORE in developing countries.Capture and evaluate the underpinning scientific knowledge of thermoacoustic technologies and devise a new engineering concept combining the thermoacoustic engine, electrical generation and refrigeration. Integrate these in a technology demonstrator.Study heat transfer processes in combustion and thermoacoustic systems and devise a high-efficiency, integrated combustor/heat exchanger/stove unit, capable of fulfilling its cooking function and providing the energy to the thermoacoustic element. Evaluate its performance by experimentation and integrate it into a technology demonstrator.Devise through interdisciplinary research an inexpensive method to convert acoustic energy into electricity that could be easily mass produced and evaluate its performance.Study the manufacturability, cost and the potential of using indigenous materials and local skills and based on the technology demonstrator, to design feasible SCORE prototypes, which could be field tested at selected locations. Build and demonstrate the prototypes in selected rural communities.Benchmark the design against other technologies and recommend future development paths, research and applications.
27 Project start Mar- Sept 2007 Original membersUniversity of Nottingham (Lead, Management and LA) Imperial college (appropriate manufacture, social-technical interface), University of Manchester, Queen Mary London, (TA technology) The Charity Practical Action (Social science, field studies)Current membersUniversity of Nottingham, City London, University of Leicester, Queen Mary London, Practical Action.Originally supported byLos Alamos (Scott Backhaus), Dai-ichi (Philippines) 10 other letters of supportCurrent supportDai-ichi (Philippines), Aster (Kees deBlok), Malaysian campus, PA Bangladesh, BUET, Rolls-Royce, plus other NGO and companies.Score Community launched 2008Score Centres launched 2010Submitted publications to date11 journal, 16 conference. (4 awaiting publication)
30 Score Centre of Excellence Malaysia started 2010Bangladesh, India started in July 2011Targeted at organisations that haveboth research and teaching capabilitiesHave capacity and will to propagate Score knowledgeWill be provided with information toDesign and analyse TAE*Manufacture Score-StovesHow to Maintain Score StovesCreate business models for Score-Stove™ exploitationExplore the franchise typeSupport available for creating teaching modulesQuality level of approval and regular checksLong term to be Self sustaining and sufficient* Thermo-Acoustic Engines
31 Score Community Began 2008 now has 14 members Tajikistan, SA, Kenya, Nepal, Uganda, Ghana, China, India.Loosely bound individuals and organisationsHave signed Collaboration Agreement or non-disclosureScore IP* given freely to developing countriesGenerated IP owned by Nottingham UniversityThen freely available to all developing countriesAccess to community web site to share knowledgeLicenses available for use in developed countriesIncludes self-help community of practiceEncourages profitable enterprisesAs long as profit stays in developing countryEncourages Research* Intellectual Property