Presentation on theme: "Language and Cognition. Language is the arrangement of sounds to communicate ideas… 1. Language is arbitrary-words don’t sound like the ideas they are."— Presentation transcript:
Language is the arrangement of sounds to communicate ideas… 1. Language is arbitrary-words don’t sound like the ideas they are conveying 2. Language has an additive structure- words+words=sentences, sentences+sentences=paragraphs 3. Language has multiplicity of structure-can be analyzed in a number of ways 4. Language is productive-endless meaningful combinations of words 5. Language is dynamic-constantly changing and evolving
Subcomponents of Language Phonemes: smallest units of speech sounds in a given language that are still distinct in sound Morphemes: smallest semantically meaningful parts of language Grammar: set of rules by which language is constructed Syntax: set of rules used in the arrangement of morphemes into meaningful sentences (word order) Semantics: word meaning or word choice.
Development of Speech Holophrases: a single term used by an infant to describe multiple things Overextension:not knowing enough words to express something fully Telegraphic speech: two or three word groups (infants start combining words) “mommy food” Overgeneralization: errors in rules of language are overextended “I goed to store” At age 10 a child’s language should be essentially the same as an adults
Organization of Language Noam Chomsky-Transformational Grammar Differentiates between the surface structure of language (superficial way words are arranged in a text or in speech) Deep structure of language (underlying meaning of the words) Innate language acquisition device-facilitates the acquisition of language in children a critical period for the learning of language Skinner disagreed with Chomsky-he said language is the product of learning and reinforcement
Language & Thought are interactive processes Language can influence thought & Cognition can influence language Benjamin Lee Whorf & Edward Sapir proposed Theory of linguistic relativity Speakers of different languages develop different cognitive systems as a result of their differences in language
Concepts! In order to deal with our surroundings we devise concepts to deal with the overload. Concept-grouping or classifying world around us Typicality-degree an object fits the average Prototype-typical picture we envision Concepts can be big or small/more or less inclusive Superordinate-broad and encompasses a large group of items (food) Basic-smaller more specific (bread) Subordinate-even smaller and more specific (rye bread) Without concepts we would be overwhelmed by our surroundings
Cognition (Thinking!) & Problem Solving Thinking is not easily defined Reasoning-drawing conclusions from evidence Deductive-logical conclusions from general statements Inductive-general inferences from specific observations Problem solving-removing one or more impediments to find a solution to a given situation. (not just math) Many correct answers are possible-divergent thinking (brainstorming) Only one answer to solve problem-convergent thinking
Problem Solving Solving structured problems-Heuristics-intuitive rules of thumb that may or may not be useful in a given situation Heuristics can lead to wrong conclusions Availability Heuristic-rule of thumb is judged by what events come readily to mind Representative Heuristic-judge objects and events in terms of how closely they match the prototype of the object or event Can lead to racism, sexism, ageism Opposite of Heuristic is Algorithms-systematic mechanical approaches that guarantee an eventual answer to a problem Insight-sudden understanding of a problem or a potential strategy (Kohler-Chimps) Mental Set-fixed frame of mind that we use when approaching problems Functional Fixedness-tendency to assumed that a given item is only useful for the task for which it was designed
Obstacles to Problem Solving Confirmation Bias-the search for information that supports a particular view-distorts objectivity Hindsight Bias-tendency after the fact to think you knew what the outcome would be Belief Perseverance-only sees evidence that supports a particular position, despite contrary evidence Framing-the way a question is phrased can alter the objective outcome of problem solving or decision making Creativity-can be defined as the process of producing something novel yet worthwhile.