Presentation on theme: "The War of 1812 Topic 6. #4 - James Madison – 1809-1817 Life-long friend of Thomas Jefferson Wrote the Constitution Shy, but very intelligent; better."— Presentation transcript:
#4 - James Madison – 1809-1817 Life-long friend of Thomas Jefferson Wrote the Constitution Shy, but very intelligent; better writer than speaker Major Political Events: Tecumseh’s Confederation, War of 1812
Leading up to war Recall – What was going on between US and Britain? Embargo Impressment British start helping Native Americans fight Americans moving west.
Tecumseh and The Prophet Shawnee Chief and his brother. Tried to unite native tribes to fight against the Americans. Based along the Wabash and Tippecanoe Rivers in Indiana. Believed to have British backing them.
The Battle of Tippecanoe Tecumseh refused to negotiate with the Indiana Governor, William Henry Harrison. Harrison attacked while Tecumseh was trying to get reinforcements Natives were defeated in the day-long battle. Tecumseh retreated to Canada (shows he probably had British support!)
Call for War! War Hawks – young, anti- British congressmen from south and west who had very strong sense of nationalism and wanted war with Britain. Federalists in New England didn’t‘ want war! Economy was already hurting. President Madison finally asks Congress to consider a Declaration of War against Great Britain. America not totally prepared – only have 16 ships.
Fighting the War of 1812 US Navy was small, but well-trained; kept winning small naval battles US Wanted to invade Canada! Planned attacks: Detroit attack failed. Niagara Falls and Hudson River attacks never even happened! 1813 – Battle of Lake Erie: US Commodore Oliver Hazard Perry WINS! British surrendered, giving US control of Lake Erie.
Fighting the War of 1812 (continued) Tecumseh dies fighting against US in Canada. The Creek War breaks out in the south along the Alabama River. Commander Andrew Jackson wins the Battle of Horseshoe Bend in Alabama, ending this skirmish and forced the Creeks to give up millions of acres of land in the Treaty of Ft. Jackson.
Fighting the War of 1812 (continued) British getting desperate, march into Washington, D.C.! British burn the city and march to Baltimore Dolley Madison saves presidential papers and painting of George Washington. British attack Ft. McHenry in Baltimore. Star Spangled Banner written by Frances Scott Key the next morning when he sees the Fort wasn’t surrendered.
Fighting the War of 1812 (continued) British attempt to gain control of Mississippi River by attacking New Orleans in January, 1815. Andrew Jacksons troops: 2 battalions of Free African Americans Choctaw Indians State Militia Pirates Defeats British soundly, but win comes 2 weeks after the war ended! Treaty of Ghent was signed in December, 1814 to end the War.
Effects of the War Ultimately nothing changed – treaty ended the war and all relationships remained the same as they were. Increased sense of American nationalism and patriotism. Boosted economy and focus on manufacturing. Weakened Native American Resistance.