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I. Religion Sparks Reform A. Second Great Awakening - Americans attended revivals and churches in record numbers 1. Launched the Reform Era to reshape.

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Presentation on theme: "I. Religion Sparks Reform A. Second Great Awakening - Americans attended revivals and churches in record numbers 1. Launched the Reform Era to reshape."— Presentation transcript:

1 I. Religion Sparks Reform A. Second Great Awakening - Americans attended revivals and churches in record numbers 1. Launched the Reform Era to reshape American society B. Temperance (moderation) movement reduced the use of alcohol 1. “Evils of alcohol” – sickness, poverty, & breakup of families 2. Maine outlawed alcohol in 1851 – 12 states followed II. Reforming Education A. Common school movement – education was vital to democracy B. Horace Mann was the greatest school reformer - advocated for compulsory attendance 1. By 1860, six in ten white students attended school


3 III. Reforming Prisons A. Dorthea Dix campaigned for humane treatment of prisoners and mentally ill 1. Criminals and mentally ill confined together 2. Crowded and unsanitary conditions and abused by jailers B. Nearly 100 mental institutions in US by her death in 1887

4 A. Sought deeper and truer understanding of the world B. Ralph Waldo Emerson – people should be self- reliant & trust their intuition 1. Sense of connection between people and nature 2. One of America’s most important authors

5 C. Henry David Thoreau – power of self-reliance and individual thought 1. Mentored by Emerson - lived simply to achieve a meaningful life 2. Wrote “Civil Disobedience” – claimed govt. was best when it governed the least  Inspired Gandhi and MLK Jr. - nonviolent resistance D. Utopianism – created communities free of social ills

6 I. Immigrants A. Irish – potato was their staple crop 1. Great Irish Famine – potato crops failed & over 1 million died by 1850 2. By 1854, nearly 1.5 million had moved to US B. Germans – fled homeland due to economic depression, overpopulation & escape religious persecution 1. Came to the US for free land and business opportunities C. Push-pull theory 1. Push – factors that cause people to leave homeland 2. Pull - factors that cause people to move to another country


8 A. Hostility toward Irish - sheer numbers, 1.5 Irish out of 24 million Americans 1. Most settled in port cities on Atlantic coast 2. Resented because of their poverty - took low- paying jobs & threatened American workers 3. Catholics in a predominantly Protestant country B. Nativists – opposed immigration, violently at times C. Germans experience was more positive – they were middle-class Protestants 1. Many settled in Midwest & became farmers or carpenters

9 A. Urban reform – richest 1% controlled cities & half the wealth 1. Most urban Americans were poor 2. Lived in tenements – disease spread rapidly 3. Majority of reform happened in late 19 th century

10 B. Industrial reform 1. By 1860, 30% worked in manufacturing - shifted from farmers to wage earners 2. Owners wanted to maximize profits a. long hours, low wages and unsafe conditions b. workers organized for greater bargaining power

11 C. Labor movement supported workers rights 1. Opposed by business owners – many were politicians 2. President Jackson declared 10 hour workday for fed. employees 3. President Van Buren extended the law to workers

12 I. Limits on Women A. Legal limits – couldn’t vote or hold office B. Economic limits – not allowed to own property C. Cultural limits – women were viewed as inferior to men 1. “A woman’s place was in the home” 2. Cult of domesticity urged women not to work

13 A. Second Great Awakening opened doors for women 1. Greater participation in religious affairs - formed Bible groups and missionary societies B. Reform societies promoted social change C. Educational reform - Catharine Beecher ran a school for women 1. Mt. Holyoke College – first women’s college led many to become teachers

14 D. Seneca Falls Convention (NY) began modern American women’s movement 1. Women desired political power, but lacked influence / accomplishments in office a. Active in abolitionist movement (racial equality = gender equality) b. needed to fight to improve own lives as well 2. Convention organized by Elizabeth Cady Stanton 3. Produced the Declaration of Sentiments - written by Stanton a. 100 signed the document – 68 women/32 men b. Declared “all men and women were created equal”

15 I. Lives of Slaves A. By 1860, 4 million lived in slavery in the South B. Life of work - slaves were viewed as property, not people 1. Lived on farms and plantations - cotton farming was labor intensive 2. Lived in barely tolerable conditions - food, clothing & medical care was inadequate C. Life of fear – slavery threatened to separate families 1. Many owners treated slaves well, but others were harsh and inhumane D. Life of hope - religion was major source of comfort 1. Found pleasure in storytelling and inspiration in songs

16 A. Slave revolt in 1830 – led by Nat Turner 1. Deadliest slave uprising in American history 2. Killed slaveholder and family - 75 followers killed dozens more Whites 3. Local militia captured and executed 20, including Turner B. Some slaves escaped to the North, Canada or Mexico

17 C. Underground Railroad – network of escape routes and safe houses 1. Provided food, hiding and directions 2. Harriet Tubman was a key organizer & most famous worker - Escaped herself, then helped others on journey to freedom

18 A. Campaign to end slavery B. One of largest movements of Reform Era C. Religious roots - Quakers condemned slavery as immoral 1. Northerners viewed slavery as a moral wrong

19 D. William Lloyd Garrison demanded slavery be abolished immediately – leading abolitionist 1. Started newspaper called The Liberator 2. Founded American Anti-Slavery Society - nearly 200,000 members E. Frederick Douglas escaped slavery at 20 1. Popular speaker with sharp intellect - published newspaper called North Star 2. One of most influential abolitionists in US history

20 21. _________________ led the movement for humane treatment of prisoners and the mentally ill. 22. __________________________ wrote “Civil Disobedience,” and influenced Gandhi and Dr. King. 23. _____________________________ led the Transcendentalist movement and is one of America’s great authors. 24. ________________________ organized the Seneca Falls Convention and wrote the Declaration of Sentiments. 25. _________________________________ started The Liberator and demanded that slavery be abolished. 26. _____________________________ published the North Star and was an influential abolitionist. 27. ___________________helped organize the Underground RR.

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