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Referencing and Plagiarism A Guide for students Nick Hubbard.

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1 Referencing and Plagiarism A Guide for students Nick Hubbard

2 For more information see:

3 How to use literature in your assignments Plan your work You must acknowledge your sources - failure to do so may result in charge of plagiarism Be evaluative - it is a key academic skill and good projects exhibit this Be clear and concise and introduce only one idea per paragraph

4 How to develop your discussion Draw together supportive and contradictory arguments –Hubbard (2010) considered that a literature review chapter should relate to the topic of the project and hence should have an appropriate title whilst Bamford (2010) indicated that this is not always necessary.

5 Citations (references) Provide citations whenever you use: –direct quotations –paraphrases and summaries –borrowed ideas –facts that are not common knowledge

6 Quotations Select quotations that: –develop a step in your argument –present striking, memorable phrasing –provide a strong, specific example –introduce a claim open to interpretation –summarize an author’s main points

7 Quotations When selecting quotations, avoid: –quoting details –padding a thin argument with unnecessary quotations –quoting commonly known information –quoting blocks of text that could be summarized or quoted more selectively –quoting information you could state in your own words

8 Paraphrases rewriting of an author’s ideas in your own words you must fully rewrite the original language and original sentence structure

9 Borrowed ideas borrowed ideas come in many forms, including original concepts, observations, data, and logic. include a citation when you use: –another author’s tables, maps or graphs –another author’s data –the organisation or logic of another author’s argument

10 Common knowledge you do not need to cite an idea which is standard information in the discipline : –Hong Kong SAR was created in 1997 you do need to cite a fact which is not common knowledge –the third party logistics market promises unprecedented potential in China (Zhongliang, 2002)

11 Develop good habits Plagiarism often starts in the note-taking stage. As you take notes, distinguish between paraphrases and direct quotations. Copy quotations exactly as they appear, and record all the information you will need for citations and a list of references. If using an on-line source, do not cut and paste text directly into your own draft.

12 Plagiarism Do not succumb to temptation You will be caught You might not obtain an honours degree

13 What is referencing? Standardised method of acknowledging sources of information and ideas We prefer you to use the Harvard style of referencing Referencing is necessary to avoid plagiarism, to enable the reader to verify and follow-up quotations Tests on

14 Referencing your work using the Harvard system See Blackboard See Blackboard for electronic references

15 Referencing books Author(s) R.R. Jordan TitleAcademic writing course Year of Publication © 1999 Edition (if not the first)3 rd edition Place of publicationHarlow PublisherPearson Education Limited Using the title page (not the front cover) note the: Jordan, R. R. (1999) Academic writing course 3 rd ed. Harlow: Pearson Education Limited.

16 Referencing Journal/Magazine Articles AuthorJ Mercer Year of publication 2004 Title of article Making the news Title of journal Media History Volume number (if present) 10 Part number (if present)3 Page number(s)187-199 Mercer, J (2004) ‘Making the news’ Media History, vol. 10, part 3: pp187-199.

17 Referencing a Web site Author/editor/organisation Year written (or last updated) Title URL Date you accessed it For future reference, print and keep a copy of the web site

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