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© 2000 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Davison and Neale: Abnormal Psychology, 8e Abnormal Psychology, Eighth Edition by Gerald C. Davison and John M. Neale Lecture notes created by Paul J. Wellman, Texas A&M University PowerPoint Lecture Notes Presentation Chapter 9 Eating Disorders Ch 9
© 2000 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Davison and Neale: Abnormal Psychology, 8e Anorexia Nervosa Anorexia nervosa is an eating disorder characterized by self-starvation –Person’s weight is 85% or less of normal weight –Person has an intense fear of gaining weight –Person has a distorted sense of their body shape –In females, anorexia nervosa leads to a loss of the menstrual period Ch 9.1
© 2000 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Davison and Neale: Abnormal Psychology, 8e Pathways to Eating Disorders Ch 9.2
© 2000 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Davison and Neale: Abnormal Psychology, 8e Two types of anorexia nervosa: –Restricting type loses weight by severely limiting the amount of food consumed –Binge-eating-purging type engages in binges (large amount of food consumed) following by purging (vomiting or use of laxatives) Lifetime prevalence of anorexia nervosa is less than 1% and is 10 times more frequent in women than in men Anorexia Nervosa Ch 9.3
© 2000 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Davison and Neale: Abnormal Psychology, 8e Anorexia nervosa is linked to depression Anorexia nervosa can have severe physical effects including –Altered electrolyte levels (potassium and sodium) lead to changes in nerve and muscle function Prognosis: 70% of anorexia nervosa patients recover Anorexia Nervosa Ch 9.4
© 2000 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Davison and Neale: Abnormal Psychology, 8e Bulimia Nervosa involves episodes of rapid overeating followed by purging –A binge is defined as eating an excessive amount of food within two hours –Purging refers to vomiting, fasting or excessive exercise Bulimia involves a fear of gaining weight Prevalence of bulimia nervosa is 1-2% of the female population Bulimia Nervosa Ch 9.5
© 2000 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Davison and Neale: Abnormal Psychology, 8e Binge Eating Disorder involves –Recurrent binges (twice a week for at least 6 months) –Lack of control during the binge episode Binge Eating Disorder does not involve –Loss of weight –Compensatory behaviors of purging Binge Eating Disorder Ch 9.6
© 2000 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Davison and Neale: Abnormal Psychology, 8e Etiology of Eating Disorders Biological accounts of eating disorders: –Genetic Anorexia and bulimia run in families Twin studies show genetic contribution to anorexia and bulimia –Endogenous opioids may play role in bulimia –Serotonin may be deficient in bulimia: Bulimics have less serotonin metabolites Bulimics are less responsive to serotonin agonists Serotonergic drugs are often effective for bulimia Ch 9.7
© 2000 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Davison and Neale: Abnormal Psychology, 8e Sociocultural Influences on Eating Disorders While cultural standards of the ideal woman has moved toward thinness, the reality is that both men and women are becoming more obese –Prevalence of obesity has doubled since 1900 –As social views of obesity become more negative, the incidence of eating disorders increases Ch 9.8
© 2000 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Davison and Neale: Abnormal Psychology, 8e Psychological Views of Eating Disorders Personality studies indicate that –Starvation can alter personality –Personality variables such as perfectionism, low self- esteem, propensity to experience negative emotions and an ability to distinguish bodily states are predictors for the development of eating disorders Self-reports of childhood sexual/physical abuse are higher in eating disorder subjects Ch 9.9
© 2000 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Davison and Neale: Abnormal Psychology, 8e Treatment of Eating Disorders Most eating disorder subjects (> 90 %) are NOT in treatment Treatment often takes place in a hospital Bulimia can be treated with antidepressant drugs (involving the serotonin system) No drugs are currently available for the treatment of anorexia nervosa Ch 9.10
© 2000 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Davison and Neale: Abnormal Psychology, 8e Psychological Therapy for Eating Disorders Psychological treatment of anorexia: –Short-term increases in body weight Operant conditioning of eating can lead to short-term weight gains –Long-term maintenance of body weight gain Not yet achieved by any treatment modality Bulimia treatment involves cognitive behavior therapy: change thought processes that result in overeating Ch 9.11
© 2000 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Davison and Neale: Abnormal Psychology, 8e Copyright Copyright 2000 by John Wiley & Sons, New York, NY. All rights reserved. No part of the material protected by this copyright may be reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording or by any information storage and retrieval system, without written permission of the copyright owner.
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