Presentation on theme: "The First Triumvirate Caesar Crassus Pompey"— Presentation transcript:
1 The First Triumvirate Caesar Crassus Pompey Pompey was the outsider in this originally secret alliance, formed in 60 BCE
2 Julius Caesar Born to a patrician family around 100 BCE Early life was a time of turmoil—marriages, affairs, etc.Served in the army outside of RomeWaited for the death of Sulla before returning to Rome
3 The First TriumvirateCrassus used part of the Roman army to expand the Republic’s territory to the east, Caesar did the same to the north, and Pompey stayed in Rome
4 63 BCE, Caesar elected to the office of Pontifex Maximus (highest priest of the Roman state religion)50’s BCE- as part of the 1st Triumvirate, Caesar governs GaulConquers Gaul by 51 BCEOrdered back to Rome, crosses Rubicon w/ army in 49 BCE
5 The First TriumvirateSeven years after the formation of the 1st Triumvirate, Crassus died in battle and Pompey campaigned to be Rome’s only consulCaesar returned to Italy in 49 BCE to challenge Pompey (Roman law forbade generals from crossing the Rubicon River with a standing army)
6 The First Triumvirate A civil war ensued & Caesar defeated Pompey Coin minted to pay Caesar’s troops
7 Julius Caesar in charge Caesar never married Pharaoh Cleopatra VII, the Queen of Egypt with whom he allied, although they did (probably) have a son togetherCaesar, who admired Alexander the Great, spent the next four years further expanding the Roman Republic
8 Julius Caesar in Charge 46 BCE- Dictator for 10 years45 BCE- Dictator PerpetuusInstituted reforms and building projectsCalendarSenate- 900 membersCitizenship to conquered peoples (esp. Gaul)
9 Assassination of Caesar Roman senators, led by Brutus and Cassius, assassinated Caesar in 44 BCE (motives included jealousy, “protection of the Republic,” and anger about the $ spent by Caesar)Caesar’s friend Mark Antony, Caesar’s great nephew (and adopted son) Octavian, and Marcus Lepidus hunted down those involved in the assassination and then formed the 2nd Triumvirate
11 What does Caesar’s death mean? End of the republic?DeificationOctavian is the “heir”
12 The Second Triumvirate AntonyOctavianLepidusFormed in 43 BCE, this triumvirate also succumbed to jealousy and ambition.Why does any last hope of Republic die with the 2nd Triumvirate?
13 The Second Triumvirate Antony married Octavian’s sister but lived and had children with Cleopatra VII (who had also had a child with Julius Caesar)Octavian raised an army and defeated Lepidus, then at Actium defeated Antony and Cleopatra, who committed dual suicide in 31 BCE
14 Octavian In ChargeMany people consider the Battle of Actium to mark the end of the Republic and the beginning of the EmpireOther people say that the Republic “died” under Julius CaesarStill others say that the Republic did not “die” until the Senate gave Octavian the title Augustus – “the illustrious one” – in 27 BCE
15 Augustus (27 BCE and beyond) 31 BCE—Beginning of Pax Romana (lasted until 180 CE)Served as Pontifex Maximus (high priest)Purged the Senate to 600 membersFire and police departmentsPut permanent employees in the government, made army professionalPublic buildings and roadsRebuilt Rome (“bricks to marble”)Biggest external problem—people to the northCarefully chose his own successor, but did not clearly declare how others should do it in the futureWhy were the Romans willing to accept Augustus’ abandonment of Republican ideals?