GaoKao National College Entrance Examination abolished during the Cultural Revolution Deng Xiaoping’s decision in 1977 –“without grasping science and education, the Four Modernizations would have no hope” –restored College Entrance Examination –like an “atomic bomb”, especially among the sent-down youths
GaoKao subjects Everyone has to take exams in Chinese, mathematics, and English Arts students also have to take exams in politics, history, and geography Sciences students also have to take physics, chemistry, and biology
Party … so why do they join the Party... indeed two separate questions: they What incentive do they have in joining the Party? Party What incentive does the Party have in recruiting them?
First: their incentives... … and so many others’ CCP Members in Chinese Universities
A survey of university students Sample: 2,063 students at 18 Shanghai universities in 1988 Question: Some of your friends have joined the Party, others are striving to do so. What is your observation and understanding of this? They believe in Communism and want to make a contribution 4% They think the Party is good and are joining in order to be further educated 10% In reality they want a “Party card” which they can use as capital to receive future benefits 59%
… and see what some 5th graders say... “We all want to join the Party. This is because you can get promotions when you are a Party member. You can have power when you are promoted. And with power you can become rich. None of the Party members in our village is now poor”.
What are their real incentives... Materialistic gains rather than ideological doctrines A professor of political science in Hong Kong: “the young generation now joined the Party like young professionals join the Lions Club or Rotary Club to establish business ties.”
student Party members advantage in job market, especially for positions in government agencies or state- owned enterprises
future political career Party membership plus college education are necessary conditions for political advancement
… but there are different voices... A student in Beijing: “I cannot be bothered, there are more ways to succeed now. One can go abroad, or work for a private enterprise, or foreign companies.” A folk rhyme in Hubei Province: “Each tills their field, and each makes their money: who cares whether you’re a Party member or not?”
Study Abroad From 1978 through 2004 814,884 have gone to study abroad –114,663 in the year 2004 –The number has been decreasing since September 11, 2001 197,884 have returned –25,116 in the year 2004 –The annual number has been increasing fast
Party Second: the Party’s incentives... In the 1950s and 1960s, the Party’s recruitment strategies emphasized class origin. Peasants and workers were especially welcome, but intellectuals were not.
It’s all changed since the late 1970s... since Deng Xiaoping started the reforms in the late 1970s, the Chinese Communist Party has staked its legitimacy on economic performance more than anything else.
To get rich is glorious! To achieve the ambitious economic development goals, the Party desperately needs youth and talent.
The “Three Represents theory” Jiang Zemin: “Our Party … has always represented the development requirements of China’s advanced social productive forces”
Party recruitment of talents The secretary of a local Party committee: “The Party is the leader of our country’s economic construction, and first of all we need excellent people from all professions”. In 1990, 0.8% of all undergraduate students were CCP members; in 2000, Party members constitute 3.8% of all under-graduate students.
Party recruitment of adult population Years of School Education