Sensorimotor Birth – 2 years Child relies heavily on innate motor responses to stimuli. Object Permanence Wynn’s number study. (Argument)
Preoperational 2 years – 6 or 7 years Well-developed mental representation and the use of language. Two major concepts children begin to understand. Sense of self Theory of Mind
Preoperational Two “flaws” with the development. Egocentrism – “World revolves around me” Animistic Thinking – “Bad table!”
Concrete Operational 6 years – 12 years Child thinks logically but is unable to understand abstract thought. Irreversibility Sally’s box of raisins.
Formal Operational 12 years - adult Think logically about abstract thoughts. If this, then that.
Reflection Human cognition unfolds basically in the sequence he proposed. While specific ages are less accurate. Research shows that cognition development is more a continuous line than Piaget’s Stages.
Lawrence Kohlberg Looked to describe the development of moral reasoning, by using Piaget’s view of cognitive development.
Moral Development Kohlberg created a series of moral dilemmas and administered them to children, teens, and adults. With his findings he created the moral ladder. Preconventional Conventional Postconventional Six stages broken into three levels
Preconventional Stage 1 Reward and punishment. No concern for others. Stage 2 Seek personal gain by appealing to another person’s self interest. “You scratch my back I’ll scratch yours.”
Conventional Stage 3 Seek social approval and keeping everyone happy. Based on personal relationships rather than principle. Stage 4 Emphasis on laws, rules, policies, etc… Maintaining social order is paramount.
Postconventional Stage 5 (Social contract stage) rules and laws are flexible and can be changed by social consensus. Emphasis on fairness, rather than blind obedience. Stage 6 Universal principles of conscience that he or she would apply to all people in all situations. Abstract principles that often refer to dignity and worth of a person.
Closing Thoughts You can see that Kohlberg’s stages parallel Piaget’s theory. Early stages are mostly based on self interest (Egocentrism) While later stages focus on other peoples expectations. Unfortunately not all people move on to the later stages. Kohlberg found that many adults never even reach stage 4. At home look up Carol Gillagan, she strongly disagreed with Kohlberg.