Presentation on theme: "The Major Theories Behaviorist- Learning described as changes in the observable behavior of a learner made as a function of events in the environment."— Presentation transcript:
The Major Theories Behaviorist- Learning described as changes in the observable behavior of a learner made as a function of events in the environment. Cognitive- In addition to observable behavior, learning also involves nonobservable behavior such as memory and motivation. Constructivism-Accepts behaviorist and cognitive precepts but adds that Learners construct their own knowledge through experience-based activities rather than being directed by teachers. How the learner interprets an experience is what matters.
Learning Theory Let’s meet the major theorists Vygotsky Skinner Piaget Bruner Rousseau Thorndike Dewey
Jean Jacques Rousseau (1712-1778) He wrote eloquently on education, arguing that children learn best by interacting freely with their environment. His thoughts on education anticipated 20th- century reforms in schooling.
Thorndike-Behaviorist Law of effect This law states that the strength of a connection is influenced by the consequences of a response. Law of exercise This law states that the strength of a connection is determined by how often the connection is used.
Skinner-Behaviorist Behavior modification is very straight- forward: Extinguish an undesirable behavior and replace it with a desirable behavior by reinforcement. It has been used particularly well with children.
Jean Piaget-Cognitivist Piaget, his wife Valentine and their three children, Jacqueline, Lucienne and Laurent whose intellectual development from infancy to language was studied by Piaget. He developed the clinical method of exploring children’s ideas which has since been widely used. He was the first to investigate child perception and logic systematically
Piaget Described by Vygotsky PSYCHOLOGY owes a great deal to Jean Piaget. It is not an exaggeration to say that he revolutionized the study of child language and thought. He developed the clinical method of exploring children’s ideas which has since been widely used. He was the first to investigate child perception and logic systematically; moreover, he brought to his subject a fresh approach of unusual amplitude and boldness.
Bruner asserts that learning is an active process in which students construct new ideas or concepts based on their current knowledge. "Learners are encouraged to discover facts and relationships for themselves." One of the young researchers who worked with him was Howard Gardner, who subsequently have made an impact on educational thinking and practice. Jerome Bruner-Cognitivist
John Dewey-Constructivist ( At times, also a Behavorist and Cognitivist) Dewey made seminal contributions to nearly every field and topic in philosophy and psychology. Besides his role as a primary originator of both functionalist and behaviorist psychology, Dewey was a major inspiration for several allied movements that have shaped 20th century thought. For over 50 years Dewey was the voice for a liberal and progressive democracy that has shaped the destiny of America and the world.
“The child's own instincts and powers furnish the material and give the starting point for all education.” John Dewey
Lev Vygotsky- Constructivist Vygotsky proposed that all learning takes place in the 'zone of proximal development'. This 'zone' is the difference between what a child can do alone and what he/she can do with assistance. By building on the child's experiences and providing moderately challenging tasks teachers can provide the 'intellectual scaffolding' to help children learn and progress through the different stages of development.“
Howard Gardner’s Multiple Intelligences 1. Verbal-Linguistic Intelligence 2. Logical-Mathematical Intelligence 3. Kinesthetic Intelligence 4. Visual-Spatial Intelligence 5. Musical Intelligence 6. Interpersonal Intelligence 7. Intrapersonal Intelligence 8. Naturalist Intelligence Technology can support each one.
1859 Dewey Born 1896 Piaget & Vygotsky Born 1874 Thorndike Born Skinner Born 1904 1915 Bruner Born 1943 Gardner Born 1934 Vygotsky Dies 1949 Thorndike Dies 1952 Dewey Dies 1980 Piaget Dies 1990 Skinner Dies Timeline on major learning theorists’ lives and deaths
How Learning Theory & Technology Are Compatible
Technology Supports All Learning Theory Approaches Behaviorist Cognitivist Constructivist and The Multiple Intelligences
Constructivism and Technology A constructivist approach allows both learners and facilitators to take advantage of the World Wide Web, because the theory focuses on making connections and putting meaning into the learning process. Web-based courses that are designed with a constructivist approach encourage the learners to navigate, create, and construct their unique knowledge base. Constructivist Learning Theory to Web-Based Course Design: An Instructional Design Approach - Simone Conceição-Runlee and Barbara J.Daley
Constructivism and Ed Tech The methods of constructivism emphasize students' ability to solve real-life, practical problems. Students typically work in cooperative groups rather than individually; they tend to focus on projects that require solutions to problems rather than on instructional sequences that require learning of certain content skills. The job of the teacher in constructivist models is to arrange for required resources and act as a guide to students while they set their own goals and 'teach themselves‘ (Roblyer, Edwards, and Havriluk).