Presentation on theme: "Chapter 1 Young Children Growing, Thinking and Learning DAP and THEORISTS."— Presentation transcript:
Chapter 1 Young Children Growing, Thinking and Learning DAP and THEORISTS
NAEYC National Association for the Education of Young Children Refers to period from birth to eight Their belief: know the child, know where he is developmentally, know his talents and interests Teachers be aware of: basic needs of play and rest, focusing on children’s development in all areas (physical, intellectual, emotional, social), cultural differences, and supporting parents and families.
DAP Developmentally Appropriate Practice Age-appropriate Individually appropriate Hands on Uses all senses No winners or losers Children explore and predict through hands-on props and activities
Behaviorist Theory Ignore undesirable behaviors: pouting or temper tantrums. Praise desirable behaviors: listening to the teacher or cleaning up toys.
Behaviorist Theory Skinner’s basic views. Works well for positive discipline. (If a child acts good he’ll get a reward or praise.)
Behaviorist Theory Classical conditioning –Pavlovian (Dog rings a bell, gets food, salivates. Ring a bell and eventually the dog will salivate.
Behaviorist Theory Operant Conditioning –Behave first, respond later –Pigeon pushes a lever and gets food. –Student’s backpack made fun of, student leaves backpack at home. –Child makes bed and is given allowance –Child pouts and is ignored; child smiles, is given attention. –Child has the desirable behavior and is given a sticker.
Behaviorist Theory Negative Reinforcement –Sit by teacher quietly for 30 seconds instead of 5 minutes and you can go outside and play. –Child follows teacher’s instructions so he can continue to blow bubbles.
Maturationist Theory Basis is Rousseau. Development follows a predetermined schedule. Learning environment must be optimal. School requirements must match child’s developmental level. –Schools screen children on the basis of a developmental test.
Constructivist Theory Piaget and Vygotsky are the basis. Children learn by constructing their own understanding. Piaget has qualitative stages--quality exploring. Vygotsky had gradual changes using social contact and language which gradually changes with development.
Constructivist Theory Piaget –Assimilation- fitting experiences into existing categories. –I have a dog; he barks. A German Shepherd barks too and is also a dog.
Constructivist Theory Piaget –Accommodation Creating a new category My dog, your cat.
Constructivist Theory Piaget –Equilibrium- balance for new information into an old or new category.
Constructivist Theory Vygotsky –Talk to kids, socialize with them; this establishes a gradual change in development –Construction of knowledge with social contact –Learner constructs his own learning
Constructivist Theory Vygotsky –Zone of proximal distance- gap for what a child can do by himself and what he can not do even with help. –It’s a waste of time to teach kids what they already know and what they can’t do even with assistance.
Constructivist Theory Gardner’s views too. –Has 9 individual cognitive domains or intelligences. –Children learn through multiple intelligences.
Summary The basis of NAEYC is to teach children using DAP guidelines. Three theories of development –Behaviorist- give reinforcements –Maturationist- child can’t learn until he is old enough. –Constructivist- children learn through interacting with the environment
Abraham Maslow His theory states that before you can reach self-actualization you must meet physiological needs. –Describe the needs pyramid and give an example: 1908-1970 Self-actualization –reach your full potential Belonging needs – you have healthy relationships Esteem needs –you feel good about yourself, confident in what you do. Safety needs – you feel not threat to your well being. Physiological needs –Basic needs such as food, water, shelter
Erik Erikson His theory states our ego identity is constantly changing due to new experiences and information we acquire in our daily interaction Eight Stages of Development 1. Infancy (Birth-18 mos.) 2 Early Childhood (18 mos.-3 yrs.) 3 Play (3-5) 4 School age (6-12) 5 Adolescence (12-18) 6 Young adulthood (18-35) 7 Middle Adulthood ( 35-66) 8 Late Adulthood (66-Death) 1902 - 1994
Sigmund Freud His theory that personality develops through a series of childhood stages where libido was described as the driving force behind behavior. –Define the following and give an example of how they work together. Id –Focused on your needs Ego – Realize other have needs and desires. Superego –Morals, work to suppress urges 1856 - 1939
Noam Chomsky His theory states children are most open to learning between the ages of 3-10. –One example of this is Learning new languages. You are more likely to learn and speak that language if you learn it early in life. 1928 -
Jean Piaget His theory states that children’s cognitive development occurs in stages. –Stages of Development 1. Sensorimotor (birth-2 years) 2.Preoperational (2-7 years) 3.Concrete Operational (7-11) 4. Formal Operational (12-adulthood) 1896 - 1980
B.F. Skinner His theory states that a behavior is Followed by consequences. Consequences (reinforcer) tend to modify that behavior. –One example of this is that a child has to say “cookie” before they can have it. The child will begin to think that every time they say cookie they should get one. 1904 - 1990