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Non-Fiction Reading & Writing

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Presentation on theme: "Non-Fiction Reading & Writing"— Presentation transcript:

1 Non-Fiction Reading & Writing
Identifying the writer’s purpose Identifying writing techniques used to communicate ideas Identifying appeals to persuade a reader

2 Identifying a writer’s purpose
How do you find the theme? The main idea of a text Look for repetition of central ideas. Be aware of what the writer is attempting to communicate. What is his/her point? In your own writing, always be aware of what your main point is. What is your thesis? Your main idea?

3 How to identify writing techniques
Writers use various writing techniques in order to communicate the main point. Techniques can include: Irony Metaphor/Simile Humor Juxtaposition Symbolism Dialogue Point of View Diction – word choice Foreshadowing Allusion Characterization Setting Mood Imagery Syntax- sentence structure Hyperbole

4 Persuasion in writing How do writers persuade, coax, influence or urge readers to agree with them? They present an argument in order to win over the reader; to get the reader to willingly accept one's ideas. Modern argumentation theory has roots in Greek and Roman thinking (Aristotle). We judge evidence, investigate carefully, state ideas accurately, and listen critically

5 Who is Aristotle? Aristotle ( BCE) is the most notable product of the educational program devised by Plato. Aristotle wrote on an amazing range of subjects, from logic, philosophy, and ethics to physics, biology, psychology, politics, and rhetoric.

6 Assessing the appeals used by writers in persuasive writing
Ethos, Pathos, or Logos?

7 Appeals to Look for in Persuasion
Ethos (authority, character) Pathos (emotions or values) Logos (statistics, facts, proof)

8 ETHOS, PATHOS, and LOGOS Ethos: the source's credibility, the speaker's/author's authority. Pathos: the emotional or motivational appeals; vivid language, emotional language and numerous sensory details. Logos: the logic used to support a claim; can also be the facts and statistics used to help support the argument.

9 Ethos: ETHICS (Credibility)
Greek for ‘character’ To make the audience decide right or wrong about what is being presented to it Political issues, national beliefs, religious issues, etc… Demonstrates author's reliability, competence, and respect for the audience's ideas and values through reliable and appropriate use of support and general accuracy

10 How to build your credibility?
Does the reader respect you? Does the reader believe you are of good character? Does the reader believe you are generally trustworthy? Does the reader believe you are an authority on this topic? Keep in mind that it isn’t enough for you to know that you are a credible source. (This isn’t about your confidence, experience, or expertise.) Your reader must know this. Ethos is your level of credibility as perceived by your reader. What other credibility does the author build into the argument? Does the author supplement his/her authority with someone else’s as well?

11 Pathos: EMOTION Greek for ‘suffering’ or ‘experience’
To make the audience feel something about what is being presented. Children, animals, illness, memories, etc… “Tugs at your heart strings” EFFECT: Evokes an emotional response

12 How to appeal to emotion?
Do the words evoke feelings of … love? Sympathy? Fear? Do the words evoke feelings of compassion? Envy? Does the characterization of the competition evoke feelings of hate? Contempt? Emotional connection can be created in many ways by a writer, perhaps most notably by stories, but also anecdotes, analogies, similes, and metaphors. These are most often used to trigger an emotional response from the reader.

13 Logos: LOGIC Greek for ‘word’
To make the reader think about what is presented Statistics, facts, authorities, etc… Very straightforward, limited “fluff.” It has a very scientific, factual approach. EFFECT: Evokes a cognitive, rationale response

14 How can you appeal to Logic?
Does your message make sense? Is your message based on facts, statistics, and evidence? Will your call-to-action lead to the desired outcome that you promise?

15 You have undoubtedly seen Ethos, Pathos, and Logos in Advertising
Look at the following advertisements and whether they would be an example of Ethos, Pathos, or Logos

16 Ethos, Pathos, or Logos? Children shown with measles – and you are being asked to vaccinate your own children.

17 Rory McIlroy endorses Nike.
Ethos, Pathos, or Logos? Rory McIlroy endorses Nike.

18 Sprite Zero is 100% sugar-free.
Ethos, Pathos, or Logos? Sprite Zero is 100% sugar-free.

19 Ethos, Pathos, or Logos? High Efficiency Tide cuts down on energy use.

20 Ethos, Pathos, or Logos? Advertisement shows images of happy families using their Toyota vehicle.

21 Ethos, Pathos, or Logos? Cardiologists recommend Ecotrin more than any other brand of aspirin.

22 Ethos, Logos, Pathos?

23 Ethos, Logos, Pathos?

24 Ethos, Logos, Pathos?


26 Advertising vs. Persuasive writing
While advertising typically sticks to one appeal, persuasive writing should utilize more than one appeal. The more appeals used, the more likely the reader will connect with it.

27 Examples of Ethos, Pathos, and Logos
"I will end this war in Iraq responsibly, and finish the fight against al Qaeda and the Taliban in Afghanistan. I will rebuild our military to meet future conflicts. But I will also renew the tough, direct diplomacy that can prevent Iran from obtaining nuclear weapons and curb Russian aggression. I will build new partnerships to defeat the threats of the 21st century: terrorism and nuclear proliferation; poverty and genocide; climate change and disease. And I will restore our moral standing, so that America is once again that last, best hope for all who are called to the cause of freedom, who long for lives of peace, and who yearn for a better future." Ethos Democratic Presidential Candidate Acceptance Speech by Barack Obama. August 28th, 2008.

28 Ethos, Pathos, or Logos? "However, although private final demand, output, and employment have indeed been growing for more than a year, the pace of that growth recently appears somewhat less vigorous than we expected. Notably, since stabilizing in mid-2009, real household spending in the United States has grown in the range of 1 to 2 percent at annual rates, a relatively modest pace. Households' caution is understandable. Importantly, the painfully slow recovery in the labor market has restrained growth in labor income, raised uncertainty about job security and prospects, and damped confidence. Also, although consumer credit shows some signs of thawing, responses to our Senior Loan Officer Opinion Survey on Bank Lending Practices suggest that lending standards to households generally remain tight." logos The Economic Outlook and Monetary Policy by Ben Bernanke. August 27th, 2010

29 Ethos, Pathos, or Logos? "I am not unmindful that some of you have come here out of great trials and tribulations. Some of you have come fresh from narrow jail cells. And some of you have come from areas where your quest -- quest for freedom left you battered by the storms of persecution and staggered by the winds of police brutality. You have been the veterans of creative suffering. Continue to work with the faith that unearned suffering is redemptive. Go back to Mississippi, go back to Alabama, go back to South Carolina, go back to Georgia, go back to Louisiana, go back to the slums and ghettos of our northern cities, knowing that somehow this situation can and will be changed." Pathos I Have a Dream by Martin Luther King Jr. August 28th, 1963

30 Ethos, Pathos, or Logos? My fellow citizens: I stand here today humbled by the task before us, grateful for the trust you have bestowed, mindful of the sacrifices borne by our ancestors. I thank President Bush for his service to our nation... President Barack Obama

31 ETHOS, PATHOS, LOGOS? Let us endeavor so to live that when we come to die even the undertaker will be sorry. Mark Twain

32 Ethos, Pathos, or Logos? The primary reason given for lack of health insurance coverage in 2005 was cost (more than 50%), lost job or a change in employment (24%), Medicaid benefits stopped (10%), ineligibility for family insurance coverage due to age or leaving school (8%). National Center for Health Statistics

33 The Rhetorical Triangle
The rhetorical triangle is typically represented by an equilateral triangle, suggesting that logos, ethos, and pathos should be balanced within a text. However, which aspect(s) of the rhetorical triangle you favor in your writing depends on both the audience and the purpose of that writing. Yet, if you are in doubt, seek a balance among all three elements.

34 Questions to Help You Recognize and Utilize Logos, Ethos, and Pathos
Is the thesis clear and specific? Is the thesis supported by strong reasons and credible evidence? Is the argument logical and arranged in a well-reasoned order?

35 Questions to Help You Recognize and Utilize Logos, Ethos, and Pathos
What are the writer’s qualifications? How has the writer connected him/herself to the topic being discussed? Does the writer demonstrate respect for multiple viewpoints by using sources in the text? Are sources credible? Are sources documented appropriately? Does the writer use a tone that is suitable for the audience/purpose? Is the diction (word choice) used appropriate for the audience/purpose? Is the document presented in a polished and professional manner?

36 Questions to Help You Recognize and Utilize Logos, Ethos, and Pathos
Are vivid examples, details and images used to engage the reader’s emotions and imagination? Does the writer appeal to the values and beliefs of the reader by using examples readers can relate to or care about?

37 ACTIVITY! Identify the use of Ethos, Pathos, and Logos in the article you have been given. Be ready to give and explain an answer of each to the class!

38 How to Determine appeals used – in what you read, and in what you write
The author’s Central Argument What is the main point being argued? The Target Audience What groups will most likely be targeted? The Author’s Purpose in writing this What is the author trying to persuade others to do? To believe? To consider? Persuasive Techniques used

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