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Greek Philosophy Chapter 11. I. Greeks placed great importance on intellect, and/or the ability to reason.

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Presentation on theme: "Greek Philosophy Chapter 11. I. Greeks placed great importance on intellect, and/or the ability to reason."— Presentation transcript:

1 Greek Philosophy Chapter 11

2 I. Greeks placed great importance on intellect, and/or the ability to reason

3 A. Studying the laws of nature and loving wisdom was called Philosophia

4 B. Philosophy is the study of general problems concerning matters such as existence, knowledge, truth, beauty, justice, validity, mind, and language

5 II. The greatest Greek philosophers were Socrates, Plato, and Aristotle

6 A.Socrates 1. Purpose of his life: to seek the truth

7 2.Asked questions to find the truth a. This was known as the Socratic Method b. Examples: What is man? How can man lead a good life?

8 3. The “good life” was wisdom, not riches or fame

9 4.Socrates asked people to examine their own beliefs and think things out a. He became very annoying!

10 5.He made enemies, who accused him of: a. Corrupting the youth of Athens

11 b.Denying the Gods c.Trying to overthrow the government

12 6.Socrates was put on trial and found guilty 7.He said he would not change his beliefs to save his own life! He would rather die for his ideas!

13 8. He drank Hemlock Juice, a poison, rather than change his mind

14 9. With the death of Socrates, Athens went downhill! In killing Socrates, they also killed freedom of thought and speech

15 B.Plato 1. Plato was a student of Socrates

16 a.He recorded all of Socrates’ lessons b.These writings were turned into a book called The Dialogues, which included all of Socrates’ teachings

17 2.He set up a school in an olive grove a. Called the Academy b. Taught there for 40 years c. The school itself lasted for 900 years

18 3.His quest (search) was for the truth also 4.He believed in an ideal (perfect) state (government)

19 a.Government should be ruled by philosophers b.Foundation of the state would be the Greek virtues of courage, temperance, wisdom, and justice

20 c. He wrote a book about these ideas called The Republic- this was the first book about political science ever written

21 d. Plato did not like democracy- he believed there were too many ignorant people who should not have a say in the government!

22 C.Aristotle 1. Aristotle was one of Plato’s students

23 2.He came to the Academy at age 17 and stayed for 20 years 3.He set up his own school called the Lyceum

24 4.He wrote over 200 books 5.He improved the Scientific Method by adding the third step of experimentation

25 a.Collect data b.Form hypothesis (These first two steps were formed by Thales of Miletus c.Test hypothesis (This was added by Aristotle)

26 6. Aristotle also developed the science of reasoning called logic

27 a.He developed the syllogism, which consists of three related statements b.The first two statements must be true c.The third statement is a conclusion based on the information given in the first two statements

28 d.Examples: Athenians are Greeks Socrates is an Athenian Therefore, Socrates is a Greek

29 Upper Dublin is in Pennsylvania Pennsylvania is in the U.S.A. Therefore, _____ ______ is in the ____________

30 7. Aristotle was also the first scientist to classify things in nature

31 a.Classified plants and animals by similarities b.System of classification still used today

32 8.Aristotle promoted the “Golden Mean”, which meant moderation in everything 9.He was the tutor of Alexander the Great

33 III.Famous Greek Scientists A. Thales of Miletus 1. First two steps of Scientific Method 2. Predicted first eclipse of the sun

34 B. Hippocrates- father of scientific medicine

35 1.Believed diseases came from natural causes, not evil spirits 2.Hippocratic Oath- rules how doctors should treat their patients

36 C.Eratosthenes 1. Figured Earth’s circumference within 200 miles 2. Made map that had latitude and longitude of Asia, Europe, and Africa forming a single landmass

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