Presentation on theme: "Learning Classical Conditioning Classical Conditioning in Real Life Operant Conditioning Operant Conditioning in Real Life Social-Cognitive Learning Theories."— Presentation transcript:
Learning Classical Conditioning Classical Conditioning in Real Life Operant Conditioning Operant Conditioning in Real Life Social-Cognitive Learning Theories
Learning Learning: A relatively permanent change in behavior (or behavioral potential) due to experience. Behaviorism: An approach to psychology that emphasizes the study of observable behavior and the role of the environment as a determinant of behavior.
Classical Conditioning New Reflexes from Old Principles of Classical Conditioning What is Actually Learned in Classical Conditioning
Pavlov’s Apparatus Ivan Pavlov(1849-1936) researched digestion Harness and fistula (mouth tube) help keep dog in a consistent position and gather uncontaminated saliva samples –They do not cause the dog discomfort –Dogs drooled before the food was presented after having been in laboratory after only a few times –He called the phenomenon a conditional reflex
New Reflexes From Old Classical Conditioning: The process by which a previously neutral stimulus acquires the capacity to elicit a response through association with a stimulus that already elicits a similar or related response. Learning occurs when a neutral stimulus is regularly paired with an unconditioned stimulus.
Conditioning Terms Unconditioned Stimulus: –A stimulus that elicits a reflexive response in the absence of learning. Conditioned Stimulus: –An initially neutral stimulus that comes to elicit a conditioned response after being associated with an unconditioned stimulus. Unconditioned Response: –A reflexive response elicited by a stimulus in the absence of learning. Conditioned Response: –A response that is elicited by a conditioned stimulus; it occurs after the conditioned stimulus is associated with an unconditioned stimulus.
Principles of Classical Conditioning Acquisition Extinction Higher-Order Conditioning Stimulus Generalization and Discrimination
Acquisition A neutral stimulus that is consistently followed by an unconditioned stimulus will become a conditioned stimulus. To be most effective the stimulus to be conditioned should precede the unconditioned stimulus rather than follow it. The conditioned stimulus becomes a signal/predictor for the unconditioned stimulus.
Extinction The weakening and eventual disappearance of a learned response; in classical conditioning, it occurs when the conditioned stimulus is no longer paired with the unconditioned stimulus.
Higher Order Conditioning A procedure in which a neutral stimulus becomes a conditioned stimulus through association with an already established conditioned stimulus.
Generalization and Discrimination Stimulus Generalization: –After conditioning, the tendency to respond to a stimulus that resembles one involved in the original conditioning. Stimulus Discrimination: –The tendency to respond differently to two or more similar stimuli.
Classical Conditioning in Real Life Learning to Like –Advertising –Sales Learning to Fear –See next Slide Accounting for Taste Reacting to Medical Treatments
Learning to Fear An 11-month old boy – named “Albert” – was conditioned to fear a white laboratory rat –Each time he reached for the rat, Watson made a loud clanging noise right behind Albert Albert’s fear generalized to anything white and furry –Including rabbits and Santa Claus
Counterconditioning In classical conditioning, the process of pairing a conditioned stimulus with a stimulus that elicits a response that is incompatible with an unwanted conditioned response.
Operant Conditioning The process by which a response becomes more likely to occur or less so, depending on its consequences. Behavior becomes more likely or less likely, depending on its consequences Also referred to as instrumental conditioning
The Consequences of Behavior Reinforcement: –The process by which a stimulus or event strengthens or increases the probability of the response that it follows. Punishment: –The process by which a stimulus or event weakens or reduces the probability of the response that it follows.
Reinforcement Positive Reinforcement: –The response is followed by presentation of, or increase in intensity of, a reinforcing stimulus. Negative Reinforcement: –The response is followed by removal, delay, or decrease in intensity of, an unpleasant stimulus.
Punishment Positive Punishment: –The response is followed by presentation of, or increase in intensity of, a punishing stimulus. Negative Punishment: –The response is followed by removal, delay, or decrease in intensity of, an pleasant stimulus.
Principles of Operant Conditioning Extinction Stimulus generalization and discrimination Learning on schedule Shaping Biological limits on learning
The “Skinner Box” When a rat in a Skinner box presses a bar, a food pellet or drop of water is automatically released. Similar boxes exist for pigeons and many other species.
Learning on Schedule Continuous Reinforcement: –A reinforcement schedule in which a particular response is always reinforced. Intermittent (Partial) Schedule of Reinforcement: –A reinforcement schedule in which a particular response is sometimes but not always reinforced.
Skinner: The Man and the Myth Burrhus Frederick Skinner, 1904-1990 –Better known as B.F. Skinner Much misinformation is circulated about his life and work –e.g., his daughters grew up normal, despite rumors that they were institutionalized
Operant Conditioning in Real Life The Pros and Cons of Punishment The Problems with Reward
When Punishment Fails People often administer punishment inappropriately or mindlessly. The recipient often responds with anxiety, fear, or rage. The effectiveness can be temporary, and depend on the presence of the person who administers it.
When Punishment Fails Most misbehavior is hard to punish immediately. Punishment conveys little information. An action intended to punish may instead by reinforcing because it brings attention.
Why Rewards Can Backfire Rewards must be tied to the behavior you are trying to increase Extrinsic Reinforcers: –Reinforcers that are not inherently related to the action being reinforced, such as money, prizes, and praise. Intrinsic Reinforcers: –Reinforcers that are inherently related to the action being reinforced, such as enjoyment of the task and satisfaction of accomplishment.
Turning Play Into Work When preschoolers were promised a prize for drawing with felt-tip pens, the behavior increased. After they got the prizes, they spent less time with pens than before the study began.
Social-Cognitive Learning Theories Learning by Observing Behavior and the Mind
Learning by Observing Observational Learning: –A process in which an individual learns new responses by observing the behavior or another (a model) rather than through direct experience; sometimes called vicarious conditioning.
Latent Learning Rats: one maze trial/day One group found food every time (red line) Second group never found food (blue line) Third group found food on Day 11 (green line) –Sudden change, day 12 Learning isn’t the same as performance