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Presentation on theme: "Learning."— Presentation transcript:

1 Learning

2 What is learning? the process by which experience or practice results in a relatively permanent change in behavior or potential behavior Learning activity

3 Classical Conditioning
A form of learning in which a response elicited by one stimulus becomes elicited by a previously neutral stimulus

4 Classical Conditioning
Terms Unconditioned stimulus (US) Unconditioned response (UR) Neutral stimulus Conditioned stimulus (CS) Conditioned response (CR)

5 Classical Conditioning
Temporal contiguity Stimulus generalization Stimulus discrimination Extinction Reconditioning Spontaneous recovery Higher-order conditioning

6 Biological constraints on learning
Come up with at least five examples of learned (classical conditioning) reaction patterns from your lives Example: cat comes running when s/he hears the can opener… Biological constraints on learning

7 Classical Conditioning
Events  outcomes Operant Conditioning One’s behavior  outcomes

8 Operant Conditioning Reinforcer ↑ likelihood Punishment ↓ likelihood

9 A Closer Look at Reinforcement
Positive reinforcer A pleasant event that follows an operant response, increasing the likelihood that the response will recur Negative reinforcer Strengthens a given response by removing an aversive stimuli

10 Punishment Positive (“Punisher”)/Negative (“Response Cost”)
Not the same as negative reinforcement To be effective, punishment needs to be Swift, sufficient, and certain

11 Drawbacks of Punishment
Punishment cannot “unteach” unwanted behaviors. Punishment can backfire. Punishment can teach aggression.

12 Shaping Reinforcement of successive approximations to end goal

13 Schedules of Reinforcement
Continuous Reinforcement Schedule Partial Reinforcement Schedule

14 Partial Reinforcement Schedules

15 Extinction Learned responses can weaken and disappear
In classical conditioning Occurs when CS-US pairing lapses In operant conditioning Occurs when reinforcment is withheld

16 Spontaneous Recovery Previously extinguished response reappears without retraining In classical conditioning CS predicts US again In operant conditioning Behavior produces old consequence again

17 Stimulus Generalization
Tendency to respond to cues similar to ones we have become conditioned to Classical Stimuli similar to CS will elicit CR Operant Supplying different response to stimulus

18 Stimulus Discrimination
Learners can be trained not to generalize, but rather to make a conditioned response only to a single stimulus. Classical CR is specific to a certain CS-US pairing Operant Reinforcing only specific responses

19 New Learning Based on Original Learning
Higher order conditioning Conditioning based on previous learning Primary reinforcer A reinforcer that is rewarding in itself Secondary reinforcer A reinforcer that acquires its reinforcing power through association with a primary reinforcer

20 Sensitivity to Rewards/Punishment
Sensitivity to Punishment Score one point for each “yes” response for all odd-numbered items Sensitivity to Reward Score one point for each “yes” response for all even-numbered items Scores range from 0-24 Higher scores  greater sensitivity

21 Gray’s Reinforcement Sensitivity Theory
Behavioral activation system (BAS) Behavioral inhibition system (BIS)


23 Observational Learning
We can learn by observing a model, without firsthand experience by the observer Observational learning Social Learning Theorists Vicarious Reinforcement

24 Factors Involved in Observational Learning
Attention Retention Production Processes Motivation

25 Latent Learning Learning happens even when not demonstrated
Stored internally Tolman’s rats

26 Cognitive Maps

27 Neuroscience and Learning
Classical and Operant Conditioning  limbic system Classical  hippocampus Operant  amygdala

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