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Learning Theory Applied to Teaching Frank T. Stritter The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill.

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Presentation on theme: "Learning Theory Applied to Teaching Frank T. Stritter The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill."— Presentation transcript:

1 Learning Theory Applied to Teaching Frank T. Stritter The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill

2 Goals for Today  State names of the five theories  Describe each theory briefly  Think about the role of theory

3 What is learning? Learning is a persisting change in an individual’s understanding, performance or potential brought about by meaningful interaction with his/her environment.

4 What is Learning? UnconsciousIncompetenceConsciousIncompetence UnconsciousCompetenceConsciousCompetenceb

5 What is a theory? Principle that guides Specifies instructor’s activities which bring about learning

6 Learning Theories  Behavioral  Cognitive  Constructivist  Humanistic  Developmental

7 Behavioral B. F. Skinner Change in observable behavior Objectives written by instructor Instructor provides stimulus, asks for response and reinforces Learner in third person

8 Instructional Strategies Provide specific objectives Expect learners to move at own pace Provide information, ask for response Present material in small steps Assess learner frequently Provide immediate feedback which is both positive and corrective Revise instruction based on data

9 Cognitive Bruner, Ausubel, Gagne Learning is meaningful connection to and organization of memory Objectives are general Instructor arranges conditions and helps learner develop structure Learner in third person

10 Instructional Strategies Assess learner’s prerequisite skills Use advance organizers Provide structure, examples, images Connect new concepts to previous Ask learner to form own questions Ask “What if..?” questions Be as concerned with thought process as with the right answer

11 Constructivist  Albert Bandura  Learning is a mutual understanding developed by participating in a learning community  Objectives developed together  Instructor sets example and reacts  Learner in first person

12 Instructional Strategies Base learning on practical experience Ask learners for their hypotheses Model performance, problem solving Help learners generate links Facilitate discussions Emphasize cooperation, collaboration Assess learning in context

13 Humanistic  Rogers, Knowles  Learning is satisfying one’s own needs  Objectives developed by learner  Instructor reacts to learner’s needs  Learner in first person

14 Instructional Strategies Develop learning contract with learner Help learners make choices Incorporate learner’s prior experience Ask learners to present to each other Guide discussions Ask learner to evaluate own learning Serve as consultant

15 Developmental Jean Piaget Learning is maturation Learning occurs in stages Objectives based on norms Diagnose stage and react Learner changes from third to first

16 Instructional Strategies Determine learner’s stage Keep growth chart Emphasize discovery of principles Help learner accept responsibility Change teaching style Directing to facilitating to consulting

17 Points of Agreement Between Theories Goals are important Simple to complex Learner must be active Reinforcement Group support Attitude toward learning and context

18 My Advice Systematic design - B How learning occurs - Cog Interactions with others - Con Adjusting instruction - D Self-determination - H

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