Presentation on theme: "DNA => RNA => PROTEIN Central Dogma of Life. DNA Name: Deoxyribonucleic Acid “Molecule of Life” Stays in the nucleus of eukaryotes Codes for RNA and ultimately."— Presentation transcript:
DNA Name: Deoxyribonucleic Acid “Molecule of Life” Stays in the nucleus of eukaryotes Codes for RNA and ultimately proteins Structure: Double stranded (double helix) Monomers: Nucleotides Deoxyribose, phosphate group, nitrogenous base N bases: Adenine, Guanine, Cytosine, & Thymine
RNA Name: Ribonucleic Acid Disposable copy of DNA- moves to the cytoplasm to make proteins Structure: Single Stranded Monomer: Nucleotides Ribose, phosphate group, nitrogenous base N base: Adenine, Guanine, Cytosine, & Uracil Three kinds mRNA - messenger tRNA - transfer rRNA - ribosomes
Nucleotide Remember that a nucleotide is made up of three parts: 1. Phosphate group 2. 5 carbon sugar 3. Nitrogenous base The nitrogenous base differs A, T, C or G in DNA A, U, C or G in RNA
DNA Replication DNA must be replicated When does this happen during the cell cycle? When does DNA get replicated? When new cells need to be made To replace dead or damaged cells To grow and develop To form a new life- fertilization birth 2 strands of DNA run in opposite directions
DNA Replication Enzymes involved DNA helicase- unwinds, unzips double stranded DNA, exposes nitrogenous bases so they can be based paired DNA polymerase- adds new DNA nucleotides DNA replication is semi-conservative, meaning that each new DNA strand is made of one old and one new strand
Protein Monomers: Amino Acids Functions: Enzymes Structural Proteins In the cell membrane Give characteristics to cells They make you, YOU!
Genes Segments of DNA The code on the DNA codes for a PROTEIN.
How to get from DNA to Proteins Transcription - The rewritten language of DNA nucleotides to RNA nucleotides Translation - The translation from the language of nucleotides to the language of amino acids.
Transcription: From DNA => mRNA Rewriting the nucleotide code In the Nucleus The DNA transcribed is for a certain protein (from a gene) DNA splits 1 Strand is used as a template RNA polymerase is used to build mRNA strand. Once complete the mRNA goes into the cytoplasm.
Codons Series of 3 nucleotides on the mRNA Each codon codes from only on specific Amino Acid
Translation From mRNA => Proteins mRNA comes from the nucleus to the Ribosome At the Ribosome, the code of mRNA nucleotides is translated into the language of Protein amino acids using tRNA
tRNA RNA molecules that helps build proteins One end has an amino acid attached One end has an anitcodon Series of 3 nucleotides on the tRNA Match with the mRNA codons The amino acid is specific to the anticodon
Translation 1. mRNA enters the ribosome Always starts with AUG on mRNA 2. tRNA from the cytoplasm attaches to the mRNA 3. Amino acid attached to tRNA is dropped off 4. The next tRNA with the matching anitcodon to the next codon enters the ribosome 5. The amino acid is dropped off and tied to the 1st amino acid…Until Stop Codon.