Presentation on theme: "British North America. English colonization of the “New World” Factors behind English colonization –Must play “catch up” to Spain & France –Motivated."— Presentation transcript:
English colonization of the “New World” Factors behind English colonization –Must play “catch up” to Spain & France –Motivated by a new economic theory: mercantilism A nation is wealthy/powerful if it has gold and silver in its treasury Three ways to get it…mine it, steal it, trade for it Favorable balance of trade: Exports > Imports –Nationalism (pride) Defeat of the Spanish Armada –Religion (Protestant Reformation)
English-style colonization Led by private companies, not gov’t –Virginia Company = a joint stock company Investors have limited liability Given a “charter” from King James I to establish a colony…all inhabitants will have the rights of Englishmen –Goals: Find gold and silver Find Northwest Passage
Early Attempts at Colonization Roanoke –Island off NC coast –Sir Walter Raleigh –1585 / 1587 sends colonists to Roanoke –The “Lost Colony” Jamestown (1607) –First permanent settlement for the English –Established in Virginia, on the James River
Jamestown Problems –Location good for defense, but not healthy) –“Gold Fever” colonists more interested in finding gold than in building a colony, cultivating food, etc. Capt. John Smith institutes martial law: “he that shall not work shall not eat” –Disease & Hunger 1607 – 150 settlers / only 38 survive 1609 – “the starving time” – 300 colonists; only 60 survive the winter –Natives Powhatan – uneasy truce with the English, but in 1609 cut off food supplies…leading to the Starving Time
Tobacco –“brown gold” –1612: John Rolfe brings tobacco from the Bahamas to Virginia –By 1620, exporting 150 million pounds / yr –Tobacco is land hungry and labor intensive Lead to conflicts with natives as colonists build larger plantations Lead to the introduction of unfree labor in Va.
Jamestown Indentured Servants –Primary form of labor until 1670s –4-7 years of labor in exchange for transportation to Va & a plot of land after their term expired. –Almost all males, poor, some are criminals –Status = white slavery with few rights –Can be bought, sold, gambled away –Most do NOT live long enough to get their land
Jamestown Slavery –First introduced in Va in 1619 –14 Africans are brought to Jamestown –Status unclear more like indentures –System of slavery evolves –By 1670, racial & hereditary slavery is common Slavery replaces indentured servitude –Life expectancy goes up… –Freed indentures are creating problems… BACON’S REBELLION in 1676 Poor settlers on the frontier are being attacked by natives The Virginia gov’t (dominated wealthy planters from eastern Virginia) isn’t helping out. Francis Bacon – creates an army and attacks the Indians When Va governor objects, Bacon turns his army on Jamestown…burn Jamestown. Rebellion collapes when Bacon gets sick and dies. Maybe, having all these poor, unhappy, former indentures isn’t a good thing…. –By 1700s fewer indentured servants; more slaves
Jamestown Native American Conflicts –Powhatan Tribe Initially help the English survive, but in 1609 they begin cutting off food supplies 1614 – John Rolfe and Pocahontas are married; truce is reached with Chief Powhatan 1622 – Great Powhatan Uprising –Chief Opechancanough fed up with English moving into Powhatan lands –Attack and kill 340 colonist = 1/3 of the settlement –Leads the crown to take over the colony and send troops and settlers to wipe out the indians.