Presentation on theme: "Learning for Jobs OECD Review of Vocational Education and Training (VET) Competing for Skills Calgary, 31 August 2009 Kathrin Hoeckel Education & Training."— Presentation transcript:
Learning for Jobs OECD Review of Vocational Education and Training (VET) Competing for Skills Calgary, 31 August 2009 Kathrin Hoeckel Education & Training Policy Division OECD, Directorate for Education
An international perspective Phase 1 2007-2008 Australia Hungary Korea Mexico Norway Sweden Switzerland United Kingdom (England and Wales) Austria Belgium (Flanders) Czech Republic Chile China Germany Ireland United States (South Carolina, Texas) Phase 2 2009-2010
VET systems vary widely across OECD countries Vocational education and training as a share of the upper secondary sector, 2006 Source: OECD (2008), Education at a Glance 2008, Indicators, Table C1.1, OECD, Paris
How to improve responsiveness of VET systems to labour market needs
Messages from the OECD VET policy review Message 1 The international VET evidence base needs to be improved. Message 2 VET systems should deliver the right skills mix. Message 3 VET needs to be well taught. Message 4 VET should be delivered in the right place. Message 5 Cooperation with social partners is essential to make change happen.
Message 1: The VET evidence base needs to be improved The OECD International Survey of VET Systems Source : Kuczera, M. (forthcoming), The OECD International Survey of VET Systems, OECD, Paris Social partner influence on upper secondary VET: - 0%; ■ 1-25%; ■■ 26-50%; ■■■ 51-75%; ■■■■ 76-100%
Message 2: VET should deliver the right skills mix (micro) What should students learn? Specific skills smoothen labour market transition, general skills ensure flexibility later on. General skills or specific skills?
How many students per programme? Balance student preferences with employer demand, ideally through workplace training. Provide government support in case of market failure. Students choose, government plans or employers determine? Message 2: VET should deliver the right skills mix (macro)
Message 3: VET needs to be well taught How to prepare VET instructors? Challenges: Teacher shortages Teachers lack industry experience Trainers lack pedagogical skills Ensure adequate pedagogical and technical knowledge. Promote interchange between VET institutions and firms. Encourage flexible recruitment and part-time working.
Good practice in OECD countries Switzerland has a specific institution for VET teacher training/up-skilling (SFIVET). Finland has established the Telkkä programme matching VET teachers and trainers in industry. Some countries (Mexico, Netherlands) have part- time arrangements for teachers working in industry. Switzerland ensures quality control and provides tools for self-evaluation in training firms (QualiCarte).
Message 4: VET should be delivered in the right place Advantages of workplace training Limitations: Some skills are better taught in a school environment. Tasks might be dangerous or too firm-specific. Prepares apprentices for the world of work Apprentices can make productive contributions Facilitates recruitment and transition to the labour market
Message 5: Engagement of social partners is essential Provision of apprenticeship places signals labour market relevance of the programme. Participation in curricula design guarantees link between workplace training and teaching in schools. Actual influence and interest for engagement are mutually reinforcing.
VET systems and the crisis Source : Schweri und Müller (2008), Die Ausbildungsbereitschaft der Betriebe. Entwicklungen 1999 bis 2005, Bundesamt für Statistik, Neuenburg Average GDP growth, current and previous year Share of apprentices among 16-year olds Economic development and apprenticeship enrolment rates among 16 year olds in Switzerland
The Irish apprenticeship system during the crisis Since 2008 the youth unemployment rate has doubled and is now at 21%. 50% of apprenticeships are concentrated in the construction sector which is badly affected. Between December 2008 and April 2009 the number of redundant apprentices has increased from 3100 to 4500. At present apprentices do not receive a certificate unless they complete the entire apprenticeship.
Responses to the crisis should aim to maintain the system Increase of the number of government-funded places in education and training in Ireland Tight monitoring of demand and supply in the apprenticeship market in Switzerland Kurzarbeit (short-time work) plus training and subsidies to employers who keep their apprentices in Germany Provision of government sponsored workshop-type apprenticeships in Austria Increase of the number of apprenticeship places in the public sector in England
Learning for Jobs OECD Review of Vocational Education and Training (VET) Information: Kathrin.Hoeckel@oecd.org Kathrin.Hoeckel@oecd.org Project website: www.oecd.org/edu/learningforjobs