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Chapter 1 : The Science of Life pg. 4

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1 Chapter 1 : The Science of Life pg. 4
Section 1 : The World of Biology

2 Biology- the study of life
How is biology important to a person’s daily life and to human society?

3 Knowledge of biology allows us to make informed decisions and know about our health, technology, the food we eat, pollution, diseases, and the environment.

4 Characteristics of Life
1. Organization and Cells 2. Response to Stimuli 3. Homeostasis 4. Metabolism 5. Growth and Development 6. Reproduction 7. Change Through Time

5 1. Organization and Cells
Organization- the high degree of order within an organism’s internal and external parts and in its interactions with the living world

6 Organs- structures that carry out specialized jobs within an organ system; made of tissues
Tissues- groups of cells that have similar abilities Cell-the smallest unit that can perform all life’s processes

7 Organelles- tiny structures that carry out functions necessary for the cell to stay alive
Examples: mitochondria & Golgi Apparatus Biological molecules- the chemical compounds that provide physical structure and enable other cellular functions and biological molecules are made of ATOMS

8 Organization also includes:
Unicellularity- Multicellularity- Single-celled More than one cell

9 2. Response to Stimuli An organism’s response to a stimulus (a physical or chemical change in the environment) Examples: pupil dilation in response to bright light What are some other examples of an organism responding to a stimulus?

10 3. Homeostasis Homeostasis- the maintenance of a stable level of internal conditions even though environmental conditions are constantly changing. Examples: burning calories to stay warm :Birds fluffing up feathers to keep warm

11 4. Metabolism Metabolism- the sum of all the chemical reactions that take in and transform energy and materials from the environment; getting energy from the food we eat Or………………. photosynthesis

12 5. Growth and Development
*All living things grow and increase in size. Growth in living things occurs by cell division and not accumulation of matter such as occurs in crystals (nonliving) Development- the process by which an organism becomes a mature adult

13 6. Reproduction Producing offspring
*NOT essential to the survival of an individual DNA transmits heredity information from parent to offspring

14 Why is reproduction an important characteristic of life?
Gene- a short segment of DNA that contains the instructions for a single trait of an organism Why is reproduction an important characteristic of life? *Reproduction is essential to the continuation of a species*

15 Types of Reproduction Asexual Sexual
One parent; produces identical offspring Ex. bacteria 2 parents produce offspring that contain genetic material from both parents; a different individual

16 7. Change Through Time Evolution- changes in a population over time
The ability of populations of organisms to change over time is important for survival in a changing world. Also, it explains the diversity of life-forms found on earth today. Evolution- changes in a population over time

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