2 Learning Outcomes:B4 – analyse the structure and function of biological molecules in living systems - carbohydratesKnow formulas, chemical structureList functionsDifferentiate between monosaccharaides, disaccharides and polysaccharidesCompare structure of cellulose, starch and glycogenExplain dehydration synthesis and hydrolysis
3 ElementsCarbohydrates contain C, H, and O in a ratio of approximately 1:2:12:1 ratio of H to O is the same is in H2OContain repetitions of H-C-OH
4 Monomers Monosaccharides (Simple carbohydrates, or sugars) Common monosaccharides have 5 or 6 carbons, usually arranged in a ring
5 Hexoses are 6-carbon monosaccharides Ex. Glucose, fructose, and galactoseAll have the formula C6H12O6Differ in arrangement of atomsDraw glucose. See p.32 for other ways to draw.
13 Sucralose …Tastes like sugar, looks like sugar, but it’s not!
14 Polysaccharides (complex carbohydrates) Long, branched or unbranched chains of monosaccharides (up to 4000!)Common examples: starch, glycogen, celluloseDiffer in orientation of bonds and degree of branching
18 Functions of Carbohydrates Glucose and other monosaccharides are used in cellular respiration, to provide energy for cellular functions in all living organismsGlycogen is used for energy storage in animals (found mainly in muscles and liver)
19 Starch is used for energy storage in plants (digested by animals to provide energy from food)
20 Cellulose provides structure in plant cell walls
21 Condensation Synthesis and Hydrolysis Monosaccharides combine to form polymers by the process of condensation synthesis, or dehydration synthesisA water molecule is given off for each bond that formsDraw pictures on overhead step by step
22 One molecule of H2O is added for each bond that is broken Polysaccharides are broken down into monosaccharides by the process of hydrolysisOne molecule of H2O is added for each bond that is brokenDraw pictures on overhead step by step