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Presentation on theme: "CARBOHYDRATES."— Presentation transcript:


2 Learning Outcomes: B4 – analyse the structure and function of biological molecules in living systems - carbohydrates Know formulas, chemical structure List functions Differentiate between monosaccharaides, disaccharides and polysaccharides Compare structure of cellulose, starch and glycogen Explain dehydration synthesis and hydrolysis

3 Elements Carbohydrates contain C, H, and O in a ratio of approximately 1:2:1 2:1 ratio of H to O is the same is in H2O Contain repetitions of H-C-OH

4 Monomers Monosaccharides (Simple carbohydrates, or sugars)
Common monosaccharides have 5 or 6 carbons, usually arranged in a ring

5 Hexoses are 6-carbon monosaccharides
Ex. Glucose, fructose, and galactose All have the formula C6H12O6 Differ in arrangement of atoms Draw glucose. See p.32 for other ways to draw.

6 3 Ways to draw glucose

7 Another view:

8 Structural formula for glucose:
Each corner is a carbon atom

9 Pentoses are 5-Carbon monosaccharides
Ex. Ribose

10 Polymers Monosaccharides combine in chains to form polymers
Two monosaccharides combined = a disaccharide Several monosaccharides combined = a polysaccharide

11 Disaccharides (2 monosaccharides) Ex. glucose + glucose  maltose
Glucose + fructose  sucrose Glucose + galactose  lactose Draw as on pagae 32


13 Sucralose … Tastes like sugar, looks like sugar, but it’s not!

14 Polysaccharides (complex carbohydrates)
Long, branched or unbranched chains of monosaccharides (up to 4000!) Common examples: starch, glycogen, cellulose Differ in orientation of bonds and degree of branching

15 Starch Draw as on page 33

16 Glycogen Draw as on p 33

17 Cellulose Draw as on p 33

18 Functions of Carbohydrates
Glucose and other monosaccharides are used in cellular respiration, to provide energy for cellular functions in all living organisms Glycogen is used for energy storage in animals (found mainly in muscles and liver)

19 Starch is used for energy storage in plants (digested by animals to provide energy from food)

20 Cellulose provides structure in plant cell walls

21 Condensation Synthesis and Hydrolysis
Monosaccharides combine to form polymers by the process of condensation synthesis, or dehydration synthesis A water molecule is given off for each bond that forms Draw pictures on overhead step by step

22 One molecule of H2O is added for each bond that is broken
Polysaccharides are broken down into monosaccharides by the process of hydrolysis One molecule of H2O is added for each bond that is broken Draw pictures on overhead step by step



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