4 ObjectivesCLE Explain how genetic variation in a population and changing environmental conditions are associated with adaptation and the emergence of new species.SPI Recognize the relationships among environmental change, genetic variation, natural selection, and the emergence of a new species. Explain how natural selection operates in the development of a new species
5 ObjectivesCLE Summarize the supporting evidence for the theory of evolution.SPI Apply evidence from the fossil record, comparative anatomy, amino acid sequences, and DNA structure that support modern classification systems. Associate fossil data with biological and geological changes in the environment.
6 ObjectivesCheck210.Inq.1 Trace the historical development of a scientific principle or theory, such as cell theory, evolution, or DNA structure
7 EvolutionThe process of change in the inherited characteristics within populations over generations such that new types of organisms develop from preexisting types.The processes that have transformed life on earth from it’s earliest forms to the vast diversity that characterizes it today.A change in the genes!!!!!!!!
8 The inheritance of acquired characteristics Proposed by Jean Baptiste Lamarck (early 1800’s)by using or not using its body parts, an individual tends to develop certain characteristics, which it passes on to its offspring.
13 Charles DarwinDarwin set sail on the H.M.S. Beagle ( ) to survey the south seas (mainly South America and the Galapagos Islands) to collect plants and animals.On the Galapagos Islands, Darwin observed species that lived no where else in the world.These observations led Darwin to write a book.
14 On the Origin of Species by means of Natural Selection Published 1859Two main points:1. Species were not created in their present form, but evolved from ancestral species.2. Proposed a mechanism for evolution: NATURAL SELECTION
15 Natural SelectionIndividuals with favorable traits are more likely to leave more offspring better suited for their environment.Also known as “Differential Reproduction”Example:English peppered moth (Biston betularia)- light and dark phases
16 Natural SelectionOrganisms in a population adapt to their environment as the proportion of individuals with genes for favorable traits increases.Those individuals that pass on more genes are considered to have greater fitness.
20 Evidence of Evolution 1. Biogeography: Geographical distribution of species.the study of the locations of organisms around the world, provides evidence of descent with modification.
21 Evidence of Evolution2. Fossil Record:Fossils and the order in which they appear in layers of sedimentary rock (strongest evidence).The fossil record shows that the types and distribution of organisms on Earth have changed over time.Fossils of transitional species show evidence of descent with modification.
29 Case Study: Caribbean Anole Lizards Ongoing examples of evolution among living organisms can be observed, recorded, and tested.In convergent evolution, organisms that are not closely related resemble each other because they have responded to similar environments.
30 Case Study: Caribbean Anole Lizards Divergence and RadiationIn divergent evolution, related populations become less similar as they respond to different environments.Adaptive radiation is the divergent evolution of a single group of organisms in a new environment.
32 Convergent EvolutionSpecies from different evolutionary branches may come to resemble one another if they live in very similar environments.Example:1. Ostrich (Africa) and Emu (Australia).2. Sidewinder (Mojave Desert) andHorned Viper (Middle East Desert)
33 CoevolutionEvolutionary change, in which one species act as a selective force on a second species, inducing adaptations that in turn act as selective force on the first species.Example:1. Acacia ants and acacia trees2. Humming birds and plants with flowers with long tubes3. Antibiotic resistance among bacteria