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Classifying Organisms

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1 Classifying Organisms

2 Essential Questions Classification
What methods are used to classify living things into groups. Why does every species have a scientific name? Classification is the process of grouping things based on their similarities. Biologists use classification to organize living things into groups so that the organisms are easier to study. There are many different ideas about how to classify living things.

3 Early Classification Systems
The first scientist to develop a classification system was Aristotle. Animals Plants Presence of “red blood”? Structure? Environment? Size? Shape and size? Tree, shrub or herb? B.C.

4 Determining Kingdoms Carolus Linnaeus classified organisms based on similar structures into two main groups called kingdoms. After discovering and learning about new organisms, an American biologist proposed a five kingdom system for classifying organisms. Monera, Protista, Plantae, Fungi, and Animalia

5 Determining Domains Classification system of living things is constantly changing. The current method used for classifying organisms is called systematics. It uses all the evidence known about the organism to classify them. Cell type, habitat, how it obtains food and energy, structure and function of features, common ancestry, and DNA.

6 Using Systematics Organisms are now split into three domains – Bacteria, Archaea, and Eukarya. They are then placed into one of the six kingdoms.


8 Scientific Names Binomial Nomenclature is the naming system for organisms in which each organism is given a 2 part name (Ex. Ursus arctos) - The first part of the name is the genus. -group of similar species - The second part of the name is the species - group of organisms that have similar traits and produce fertile offspring. - usually describes the organisms behavior or appearance.

9 Levels of Organization
Similar species are grouped into one genus. Similar genera are grouped into one family. Families into orders, then classes, phyla, kingdoms, then finally domains. From broadest to most specific: Domain, Kingdom, Phylum, Class, Order, Family, Genus, Species

10 Did King Philip Come Over
For Good Spaghetti? Taxa


12 Classification Tools A dichotomous key is a series of descriptions arranged in pairs that lead the user to the identification of an unknown organism.

13 Classification Tools A cladogram is a branched diagram that shows the relationships among organisms, including common ancestors.

14 Recap: 3 Domains – Domain Archaea, Domain Bacteria, Domain Eukarya These Domains can be further broken down into 6 Kingdoms

15 Six Kingdoms

16 Archaebacteria Single-Celled Organisms (Microscopic)
Lacks organized nucleus and other organelles. Prokaryotic Autotrophs and Heterotrophs “Archaea” – ancient lives in extreme conditions

17 Eubacteria Single-Celled Organisms (Microscopic)
Lacks organized nucleus and other organelles. Prokaryotic Autotrophs and Heterotrophs “Eu” – new Different chemical makeup

18 Protist Mostly Single-Celled Organisms
Some are Multicellular Organized Nucleus and Organelles (Eukaryotic) Autotrophs and Heterotrophs

19 Fungi Mostly Multi-celled Organisms (Eukaryotic) Heterotrophs
Some are One-Celled Heterotrophs Yeast Mushroom Mold Spore

20 Plant Multi-celled Organisms Autotrophs Eukaryotic Photosynthesis
Cell Wall and Cellulose

21 Animal Multi-celled Organisms Heterotrophs Eukaryotic

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