Presentation on theme: "Theories of Learning Pavlov’s Classical Behaviorism: stimulus-response behavior leads to learning learning process consists of the formation of associations."— Presentation transcript:
Theories of Learning Pavlov’s Classical Behaviorism: stimulus-response behavior leads to learning learning process consists of the formation of associations between stimuli and reflexive responses Skinner’s Operant Conditioning: Human behavior and learning are the result of operant conditioning; humans operate on the environment reinforces (feedback) are stronger aspects of learning than is stimulus-response association feedback and reinforcement fosters learning and change of behavior when a behavior is not reinforced it disappears or is suppressed
David Ausubel’s Meaningful Learning Theory/Rationalistic Theory: Human behavior is abstract in nature; it cannot not be controlled or predicted Learning takes place through a meaningful process of relating new events or items to already existing cognitive concepts/propositions/items Meaningful learning is a process of relating and anchoring new material to relevant established entities in cognitive structure As new material enters the cognitive structure it interacts with and is appropriately associated under higher order categories for meaningful retention
Roger’s Humanistic Psychology Perspective of a constructivist view of learning Learning takes place in a non-threatening environment, which allows a person to form a picture of reality that is congruent with reality The goal of education is the facilitation of change and learning The context for learning must be properly created Learning is not filling the student with information True knowledge is facilitated when the student is allowed to negotiate learning outcomes, to cooperate with teachers and peers in a process of discovery, to engage in critical thinking, to be empowered to achieve solutions to real problems
Piaget’s Theory of Cognitive Development: Piaget’s theory is about cognitive development as the key to explain how individuals perceive, think, understand, and learn Cognitive development is perceived as consisting primarily of logical and mathematical abilities Intelligence is synonymous with thinking in that it involves mental operations
Intelligence develops as children psychologically adapt to their environment and reconcile discrepancies between current forms and previously acquired forms of understanding Meaning is construed based on previous background knowledge structures Schemata are the previously acquired knowledge structures through experience. Schemes: mental systems of knowledge categories—units of knowledge that children develop through the adaptation process.
OTHER PIAGETIAN CONCEPTS Active learning: by being physically and mentally engaged in learning activities, children develop knowledge and learn. Assimilation: process of fitting new information into existing schemes. Accommodation: changing or altering existing schemes or creating new ones in response to new information. Equilibrium: balance between existing schemes developed through assimilation and intake of new information through accommodation.
Piaget’s Constructivism And Cognitive Development in Morrison, 2004. Early Childhood Education Today
PIAGET’S STAGES OF COGNITIVE DEVELEPMENT in Morrison, 2004. Early Childhood Education Today
Vygotsky’s Sociocultural Learning Theory Learning is social; every child reaches his or her potential development, in part, through social interaction Social interaction, through language, is a pre- requisite to cognitive development; Learning awakens a variety of developmental processes that are able to operate only when the child is interacting with people. Once these processes are internalized (as the child approaches the zone of proximal development), they become part of the child’s independent developmental achievement
Zone of Proximal Development: in Morrison, 2004. Early Childhood Education Today
–Vygotsky’s concept of the zone of proximal development: The area of development into which a child can be led in the course of interaction with a more competent partner,’ either adult or peer. [It] is not some clear-cut space that exists independently of joint activity itself. Rather, it is the difference between what the child can accomplish independently and what he or she can achieve in conjunction with another more competent person. The zone is thus created in the course of social interaction. Learning awakens a variety of developmental processes that are able to operate only when the child is interacting with people. Once these processes are internalized (as the child reaches the zone of proximal development), they become part of the child’s independent developmental achievement.
–The zone of proximal development (ZPD) represents the tasks that children cannot do independently but can do when helped by a more competent adult; it encompasses the range of tasks that are too difficult to master alone but that can be learned with guidance and assistance. –Vygotsky’s scaffolding is assistance of some kind that enables children to complete tasks they cannot complete independently. It is the process of providing different levels of support, guidance, or direction during the course of an activity.
Abraham Maslow’s (1890—1970) Self- actualization Theory of Learning –Maslow’s self-actualization theory is based on the satisfaction of human needs. Once the basic needs are satisfied, the child can reach self-actualization, or self- fulfillment--the highest human need. –Recognition and approval are self-esteem needs that relate to success and accomplishment. –Children who are independent and responsible, and who achieve, will have high self-esteem –Self-esteem increases the possibilities of achievement. –When children have a sense of satisfaction, they are enthusiastic, and are eager to learn and become involved in activities that will lead to higher levels of learning.
Morrison, 2004. Early Childhood Education Today Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs
Erik Erikson’s (1902—1994) Theory of Psychosocial Development –Erikson’s theory of psychosocial development is based on the premise that cognitive and social development occur hand in hand and cannot be separated. –Children’s personalities and social skills grow and develop within the context of society and in response to society’s demands, expectations, values, a social institutions such as families, schools, and child care programs. –School-age children must deal with demands to learn new skills or risk a sense of incompetence –they either develop an ability to do, be involved, be competent, and achieve or a feeling of inferiority, failure, and incompetence.
Howard Gardner’s Theory of Multiple Intelligences –Gardner has identified nine intelligences: visual spatial, verbal/linguistic, mathematical/logical, bodily/kinesthetic, musical/rhythmic, intrapersonal, interpersonal, naturalistic, and existentialist. Gardner’s view of intelligence and its multiple components has influenced educational thought and practice.
Howard Gardner’s Theory of Multiple Intelligences In Morrison, 2004. Early Childhood Education Today