PASS TAKS Tutorial Week IV Objective 3 Interactions in the Living World
All living things have a life cycle, and interact with the non-living world in cycles... We are born, develop and grow into adults and have children and then die. This is our life cycle. We interact with the world as do all animals.
Water Cycle Precipitation (rain and snow) fall on plants and ground. Plants respire and water evaporates back into clouds. It condenses in the clouds back into a liquid. The ground filters the water run-off into the lakes where it evaporates again.
Carbon Cycle Photosynthesis Glucose C 6 H 12 O 6 and oxygen are produced by plants, taken in by animals. Cellular Respiration Animals exhale CO 2 which is taken in by plants to make glucose
Man’s Effects on the Environment Ozone O 3 is a protective layer at the top of the atmosphere. However, when it occurs near the ground, it is very harmful to all living things, it is SMOG
Man’s Effects on the Environment More than 90% of fresh water is locked in ice at the polar caps and in glaciers. Much of the fresh water is polluted by land run-off, dumping of wastes and excess heat pumped directly into lakes, oceans and rivers.
Man’s Effects on the Environment Global warming, also called the Greenhouse Effect is caused by excess burning of fossil fuels, destruction of our oxygen producing protista in the oceans, and deforestation on land. Less plants means less oxygen and more CO 2.
Biological Organization begins with cells... Cells which work together form tissues Tissues that are layered form organs
And..... Organs that work together form an ORGAN SYSTEM Organ systems work together to maintain homeostasis for the organism
Homeostasis This is the maintenance of the normal operating conditions of an organism. Control of body temperature, pulse rate, blood pressure, blood sugar, urine output, digestive absorption, metabolism rate, growth rate and hormone levels all need to be maintained.
What are they referring to? Biosphere – The entire area of the planet that supports life. Biome – An area defined by specific abiotic and biotic factors. Community – The groups of living things in an area and how they relate.
What is extinction and what causes it? A population is extinct when the last of that species is dead. Example: There are no more dinosaurs. What happened? Their habitat was destroyed. When they no longer have what they need to live, they die.
Ecology – The study of the relationships among living things Symbiosis is a close relationship between two living things. When both are helped it is called mutualism When one is helped and there is no effect on the other it is called commensulism When one is helped and the other is harmed it is called parasitism
Mutualism... Sharks are cleaned by a little fish known as a Remora. The shark never eats them since they clean bacteria off the shark. Since both species are helped, this is mutualism.
Commensulism... Orchids live high in tree-tops on the branches of large trees. They do not harm the tree, but they are helped by being raised up into the sunshine and receiving water.
Parasites... Parasites harm or kill the host. A good example is a tape worm. It intercepts all of the hosts food, causing the host to starve to death.
Energy Diagrams At one end of the diagram are plants. They are called producers since they are capable of turning sunlight into food by photosynthesis. They pass 10% of the energy they absorb to animals that eat them.
Consumers 1 st Order Consumers eat only plants and are also called herbivores. 2 nd Order Consumers eat only animals and are called carnivores. 3 rd Order Consumers eat both plants and animals, they are known as omnivores
10% Energy Rule – Only 10% of the energy moves up to the next trophic level. Decomposers
Food Chain – One of many feeding relationships in a community Arrows in a food chain show the direction of energy flow. This is not the only feeding relationship for these organisms. When several or all of the food relationships are shown it’s a...
Food Webs Food webs attempt to show all the feeding relationships in a community. The direction of the arrows shows the direction of energy flow. At the bottom of every web and every chain is a plant. These are the only things that can turn sunshine into food.
Predator and Prey Prey are the animals that are eaten as a food source for the... Predator This is the hunter animal. The population of the predator must be less than the prey or they do not have enough food.
Carrying Capacity This is the maximum number of a specific population that an area can support with enough food and living requirements. It is shown by a line on population graphs for a specific species.
Also remember to review: Human Body Systems Virus and Bacteria Illnesses, Transmission methods Organization of the Biological Taxonomy