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Ecology 12.1. Learning Targets I can identify ways that organisms interact with other organisms and non-living things I can describe feeding relationships.

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Presentation on theme: "Ecology 12.1. Learning Targets I can identify ways that organisms interact with other organisms and non-living things I can describe feeding relationships."— Presentation transcript:

1 Ecology 12.1

2 Learning Targets I can identify ways that organisms interact with other organisms and non-living things I can describe feeding relationships among organisms in a community I can explain how energy flows through ecosystems I can identify materials that cycle through ecosystems

3 Ecosystems PopulationsCommunitiesEnergyMaterials Living Things Non-living Things

4 How do Organisms interact? All organisms interact with one another and non- living things in their environment Ecology is the study of the interactions among living things and non-living things in their environment Examples: 1. Animals interact with the air when they inhale oxygen and exhale carbon dioxide 2. Animals interact with plants when they eat fruit or vegetables

5 Levels of Organization Ecosystem Community Population Organism Biosphere

6 Levels of Interaction Life on Earth is organized into levels The higher the level, the more interactions there are To interact means to act upon or influence something ORGANISM The lowest level of organization is the individual organism The place where an organism lives is called its habitat Each organism is adapted to live in its habitat

7 Population A group of organisms of the same species that live in the same area form a population The individual members of a population interact with one another Examples of interactions: Mating and competing for food, water and space

8 Community Populations of different species that live in the same area make up a community Bears, rabbits, pine trees and grass are different populations of organisms, but may live together in the same forest community Populations in a community interact with one another in many ways

9 Ecosystem All the interactions among populations of a community and the non-living things in their environment make up an ecosystem Ecosystems occur on land, in water, and in the air As the community (living and non-living) of an ecosystem interacts, they may cause changes to the community

10 Changes in an Ecosystem Changes in the community may result in a completely different type of community These changes over long periods of time are known as succession Eventually, a community reaches a point at which it changes little over time A community that is stable is called a climax community

11 Effects of Pollution on Ecosystems Pollution is anything added to the environment that is harmful to living organisms Pollution is most often caused by human activity Activities that cause pollution: -burning coal, oil, gas -acid rain (sulfur) -construction -fertilizers -chemicals dumped by factories

12 Biomes Some ecosystems are found over large geographic areas These are called Biomes Different biomes are found in different climates (temperature, sunlight, rainfall) Examples of biomes: desert, rain forest, tundra, grassland, forest

13 The Biosphere The highest level of organization is the Biosphere All the biomes on Earth together form the biosphere The biosphere includes all organisms living on Earth’s surface, in the water, underground and in the air The biosphere also includes non-living things, such as water, minerals and air

14 Vocabulary Ecology Habitat Climax Community Biome Self-Check Questions 1-5 pg. 267 COMPLETE SENTENCES

15 Food Chains and Food Webs 12.2

16 Food Chains vs. Food Webs Plant Small Fish Larger Fish Bird This feeding order is called a Food Chain Almost all food chains begin with plants All the food chains in a community that are linked to each other are called Food Webs Most organisms eat a variety of food sources Food chains are linked to one another at certain points Together, the food chains form food webs (pg. 272)

17 Producers Organisms that make their own food Every food chain begins with a producer Most producers use the energy of sunlight to make food by the process of photosynthesis

18 Consumers Organisms that feed on or eat other organisms are consumers All animals and fungi and some bacteria are consumers Consumers can be: Herbivores – plant eating only Carnivores – meat eating only Omnivores – plant and meat eating

19 Feeding Order of Consumers First-order consumers eat plants (ex. rabbit) Second-order consumers eat animals that eat plants (ex. snake eats rabbit) Third-order consumer eats animals that eat animals (ex. hawk eats snake)

20 Pyramid of Numbers The pyramid is organized in order of consumers and producers It begins with a producer at the bottom (grass) The highest level of consumer is at the top The size of the population decreases at each higher level of a food chain (pg. 271)

21 Decomposers Decomposers continue the food chain by feeding on a dead organism Decomposers feed on dead organisms at every level of the pyramid (both producer and consumer) Decomposers get food by breaking down complex chemicals in dead organisms into simple chemicals The chemicals become part of the soil and plants take in these chemicals to help them grow

22 Vocabulary Consumer Producer Food Chain Food Web Self-Check Questions 1-5 pg. 273 COMPLETE SENTENCES

23 How does Energy flow through Ecosystems? 12.3

24 How does Energy flow through Ecosystems? Plants use energy from the sun to make food You get energy from the food you eat Energy is the ability to do work Energy comes in many forms Light and heat from the sun Electricity Batteries store chemical energy A moving bicycle has mechanical energy All living organisms need energy to live

25 Energy in Food Plants make their own food through photosynthesis Photosynthesis creates energy that the plant stores in sugar molecules When the plant needs energy, to grow or reproduce, it releases the stored energy When you eat potatoes, asparagus, or other plant parts, you are taking in the plants’ stored energy

26 Flow of Energy Through Food Chains The flow of energy in a food chain begins with the producer, such as grass or other plants The energy stored in plants is passed on to the organisms that eat the plants These first-order consumers use some of the food energy and lose some energy in the form of heat The rest is stored as chemical energy in the first-order consumer

27 Energy Pyramid The energy stored in first-consumers is passed on to second-order consumers and so on The most energy is available to the producers; it comes directly from the sun The amount of available energy decreases at each higher level of a food chain (pg. 277) This is due to the consumers using energy for their own needs and losing some energy in the form of heat

28 Importance of Sun Without the sun, there would be no life on Earth All plants and animals and most other organisms depend on energy from the sun Energy flows from the sun to producers (plants) Some of that stored energy flows to consumers while some is lost to the environment (heat) The sun continuously replaces lost energy

29 Vocabulary Energy Pyramid Self Check Questions 1-5 pg. 278 COMPLETE SENTENCES

30 How do Materials cycle through Ecosystems? 12.4

31 Materials If a material exists naturally in the Earth, its supply can eventually run out if over used Materials must be recycled and used again Some chemicals important for life are: Water Oxygen Carbon Nitrogen

32 The Water Cycle









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