Presentation on theme: "Unit 8, Chapter 24 Integrated Science. Unit Eight: Water and the Environment 24.1 The Water Cycle 24.2 Water Quality 24.3 Acid Rain 24.4 Oceans Chapter."— Presentation transcript:
Unit Eight: Water and the Environment 24.1 The Water Cycle 24.2 Water Quality 24.3 Acid Rain 24.4 Oceans Chapter 24 Earth's Water Systems
Chapter 24 Learning Goals Describe the set of process through which water is continuously recycled on Earth. Describe how water quality is analyzed. Understand the cause of acid rain. Understand the environmental effects of acid rain. Demonstrate the effect of acid on a natural ecosystem. Explain how the oceans were formed. Describe the composition of seawater. Explain how the oceans remove carbon dioxide from the atmosphere. Discuss how toxic pollutants travel through marine food chains.
24.1 The Water Cycle The amount of water on Earth is about the same as it was during the age of the dinosaurs, 65 to 220 million years ago. With about 70 percent of its surface covered with water, Earth is truly a water planet.
24.1 The Water Cycle Of the total amount of water on Earth, less than 1 percent is available for our consumption. Most is too salty or frozen as ice at the poles.
24.1 The Water Cycle The four main processes of the water cycle are: — evaporation — transpiration — condensation — precipitation
24.1 The Water Cycle Aquifers contain groundwater. Groundwater that is not collected for our use will continue to flow through sediments and eventually enter the ocean, thus continuing the water cycle.
24.1 Water Shed A watershed is an area of land that catches all rain and snow and collects it one place like a river.
24.1 The Water Cycle Key Question: What is the quality of your local surface water? *Read text section 24.1 BEFORE Investigation 24.1
24.2 Water Quality Standards are used to judge water quality. Water that meets these standards is safe for drinking, cooking, and other household activities.
24.2 Tap Water The variety and amount of ions in your tap water give it a certain taste.
24.4 Six main ions in seawater In addition, there are more than 70 additional trace elements that make seawater a very complex solution.
24.4 Salinity The term salinity describes the “saltiness” of seawater. Salinity describes how much salt is dissolved in one kilogram of water.
Salinity remains constant. The salinity of the oceans has remained relatively constant for 600 million years because physical and chemical processes create a balance.
Calcium carbonate buffers the ocean. More CO 2 in the atmosphere could mean a more acidic ocean. 24.4 Carbon dioxide in the oceans
Energy and the Food Chain A food chain is a series of steps through which energy and nutrients are transferred, from organism to organism, in an ecosystem. — Producers are plants and one- celled organisms that concentrate energy from the sun through photosynthesis. — Herbivores feed on producers. — Many carnivores, the next step on a food chain, feed on herbivores.
A food chain can be represented as a pyramid, with producers forming the base, herbivores next, and carnivores at the top. This arrangement represents how energy is lost in the food chain. Decomposers recycle materials back to the food chain. 24.4 Energy loss in a food pyramid
As producers store energy, they also absorb small amounts of toxic pollutants in the water. Next, herbivores eat large numbers of producers to obtain enough energy. Top carnivores, who prey on other carnivores, can accumulate dangerous levels of toxic pollutants. 24.4 Toxins in pyramids
24.4 Oceans Key Question: How does carbon dioxide affect oceans? *Read text section 24.4 BEFORE Investigation 24.4 ? ?