2 Philosophers from the Greek words phil “love” and sophia “wisdom” one who seeks enlightenment or wisdomthe ancient Greeks produced some of the most remarkable ideas the world has ever known
3 The philosophers of ancient Greece laid the foundation for disciplines such as: historypolitical sciencebiologylogic
4 logic from the Greek word logos, meaning “word”, “speech”, “reason” the science of reasoningGreek logos ("word," "speech," "reason")science dealing with the principles of valid reasoning and argumentthe study of logic is the effort to determine the conditions under which one is justified in passing from given statements, called premises, to a conclusion that is claimed to follow from them-logical validity is a relationship between the premises and the conclusion such that if the premises are true then the conclusion is truethe validity of an argument should be distinguished from the truth of the conclusionif one or more of the premises is false, the conclusion of a valid argument may be false:"All mammals are four-footed animals; all people are mammals; therefore, all people are four-footed animals" is a valid argument with a false conclusion.an invalid argument may by chance have a true conclusion:"Some animals are two-footed; all people are animals; therefore, all people are two-footed" happens to have a true conclusion, but the argument is not valid.”logical validity depends on the form of the argument, not on its content-if the argument were valid, some other term could be substituted for all occurrences of any one of those used and validity would not be affected (by substituting "four-footed" for "two-footed," it can be seen that the premises could both be true and the conclusion false, thus the argument is invalid, even though it has a true conclusion)[Source: "Logic," Microsoft(R) Encarta(R) 98 Encyclopedia. (c) Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved.]
5 Sophists from the Greek word sophia professional teachers who traveled from polis to polisrejected the belief that gods and goddesses influenced human behaviourSophistsGreek sophistes ("expert, master craftsman, man of wisdom")name applied by the ancient Greeks to learned men, such as the Seven Wise Men of Greece, originally-in the 5th century B.C., a name applied to itinerant teachers who provided instruction in several higher branches of learning for a feeindividuals sharing a broad philosophic outlook rather than a schoolpopularized the ideas of various early philosophersbased on their understanding on prior philosophic thought-most of them concluded that truth and morality were essentially matters of opinion-tended to emphasize forms of persuasive expression, such as the art of rhetoric, which provided pupils with skills useful for achieving success in life, particularly public lifewere popular for a time, especially in Athenstheir skeptical view on absolute truth and morality eventually provoked sharp criticismSocrates, Plato, and Aristotle challenged the philosophic basis of the Sophists' teaching-Plato and Aristotle further condemned them for taking moneywere later accused by the state of lacking morality-the word sophist acquired a derogatory meaning as a result (as in the modern term sophistry, which can be defined as subtle and deceptive or false argumentation or reasoning)were of minor importance in the development of Western philosophic thoughtwere, however, the first to systematize educationleading 5th-century Sophists included Protagoras, Gorgias, Hippias of Elis, and Prodicus of Ceos[Source: "Sophists," Microsoft(R) Encarta(R) 98 Encyclopedia. (c) Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved.]
6 “Man is the measure of all things.” - Sophist credotruth is different for each individuala challenge to certain traditional Greek beliefstook money in exchange for their teachingmany seemed most intent on teaching young men how to win a political argument and get ahead in the world
7 Socrates believed in absolute truth. (470?-399? B.C.)Greek philosopher who profoundly affected Western philosophy through his influence on Platoborn in Athens, the son of Sophroniscus, a sculptor, and Phaenarete, a midwifereceived the regular elementary education in literature, music, and gymnastics-later he familiarized himself with the rhetoric and dialectics of the Sophists, the speculations of the Ionian philosophers, and the general culture of Periclean Athensinitially followed the craft of his father-according to a former tradition, he executed a statue group of the three Graces, which stood at the entrance to the Acropolis until the 2nd century A.D.served as an infantryman in the Peloponnesian War against Sparta-exhibited conspicuous bravery at the battles of Potidaea in B.C., Delium in 424 B.C., and Amphipolis in 422 B.C.(Continued on next slide)[Image source:
8 [Image source: http://www.a1.com/shirt/cgi/t-shirt.cgi?soc] Socrates challenged his students to think for themselves and be able to defend their opinions by asking pointed questions.Socrates(continued)believed in the superiority of argument over writing and therefore spent the greater part of his mature life in the marketplace and public places of Athens-engaged in dialogue and argument with anyone who would listen or who would submit to interrogationwas reportedly unattractive in appearance and short of stature but was also extremely hardy and self-controlledenjoyed life immensely and achieved social popularity because of his ready wit and a keen sense of humor that was completely devoid of satire or cynicismwas obedient to the laws of Athens-generally steered clear of politics, restrained by what he believed to be divine warningbelieved that he had received a call to pursue philosophy and could serve his country best by devoting himself to teaching, and by persuading the Athenians to engage in self-examination and in tending to their soulwrote no books and established no regular school of philosophyPlato portrayed Socrates as hiding behind an ironical profession of ignorance (Socratic irony) and possessing a mental acuity and resourcefulness that enabled him to penetrate arguments with great facility(continued on next slide)[Image source:
9 [Image source: http://www.btinternet.com/~socratic/] Socrates was found guilty of “corrupting the young” and was ordered to commit suicide.(continued)philosophy was essentially ethical in character-believed in a purely objective understanding of such concepts as justice, love, and virtue-self-knowledge was the basis of his teachings-believed that all vice is the result of ignorance, and that no person is willingly bad-virtue is knowledgethose who know the right will act rightlyhis logic emphasized rational argument and the quest for general definitions-profoundly affected the entire subsequent course of Western speculative thoughtwas nonetheless regarded with suspicion by many of his contemporaries, who disliked his attitude toward the Athenian state and the established religion-was charged in 399 BC with neglecting the gods of the state and introducing new divinities, a reference to the daemonion, or mystical inner voice-was also charged with corrupting the morals of the young, leading them away from the principles of democracy-was wrongly identified with the Sophists, possibly because he had been ridiculed by the comic poet Aristophanes in his play The Clouds as the master of a "thinking-shop" where young men were taught to make the worse reason appear the better reason[Source: "Socrates," Microsoft(R) Encarta(R) 98 Encyclopedia. (c) Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved.][Image source:
10 [Image source: http://phd.evansville.edu/plato.htm] Plato, a student of Socrates, became a teacher at the age of 40 and opened a school called the Academy.Plato(circa 428-c. 347 B.C.)Greek philosopherone of the most creative and influential thinkers in Western philosophywas born to an aristocratic family in Athens-his father, Ariston, was believed to have descended from the early kings of Athens-Perictione, his mother, was distantly related to the 6th-century B.C. lawmaker Solonhis father died when he was a child, and his mother married Pyrilampes, who was an associate of the statesman Pericleshad political ambitions as a young man, but he became disillusioned by the political leadership in Athenseventually became a disciple of Socrates-accepted his basic philosophy and dialectical style of debate:the pursuit of truth through questions, answers, and additional questionswitnessed the death of Socrates at the hands of the Athenian democracy in 399 B.C.-fearing for his own safety, he left Athens temporarily and traveled to Italy, Sicily, and Egypt[Image source:
11 In The Republic, Plato presented what he considered to be the ideal government. Plato distrusted the lower classes:believed that too much freedom would result in social disorderwanted only the most intelligent and best-educated citizens to participate in government
12 Plato rejected the senses as a source of truth. Reality could only be understood through logical thought and reasoning.
13 [Image source: http://www.rit.edu/~flwstv/aristotle1.html] The philosopher Aristotle wrote over 200 books on topics ranging from astronomy to political science.[Image source:
14 ttp://ethics.acusd.edu/aristotle.html] Aristotle taught the golden mean, an ethical principle that affirmed living moderately and avoiding extremes in one’s actions.[Image source:ttp://ethics.acusd.edu/aristotle.html]
16 He published his research in a tome called Historia (“investigation”). Herodotus traveled extensively during his lifetime, recording everything he heard and saw.[Image source:He published his research in a tome called Historia (“investigation”).
17 Thucydides is regarded as the first scientific historian, because he was as accurate and impartial as possible.circa 460-c. 400 BCGreek historian known for his History of the Peloponnesian War-earned him a reputation as one of the foremost historians of antiquity (his concern with objectivity exerted a strong influence on such later Greco-Roman historians as Polybius and Dio Cassius)born in or near Athenswas the son of an aristocratic Athenian. When the Peloponnesian War between Athens and Sparta broke out in 431 BC, Thucydidesdiscerned the importance of the Peloponnesian War when it erupted and formulated plans for recording its course and outcomewas appointed one of the generals to command the Athenian fleet off the Thracian coast in 424 B.C.-failed to arrive in time to prevent the capture of Amphipolis, which was besieged by the Spartan general Brasidaswas exiled and spent the next 20 years abroad (about 404 BC he was recalled from exile)the History of the Peloponnesian War covers three phases of the war:1. the conflict between Athens and Sparta from 431 to 421 BC, ended by the Peace of Nicias;1. the Sicilian expedition of the Athenians from 415 to its disastrous failure in 413 BC; and3. the renewed war between Athens and Sparta from 413 to 404 BC.the history is incomplete, breaking off in 411 B.C.
18 (continued from previous page) Thucydides(continued from previous page)brought to his undertaking a practical acquaintance with both politics and military sciencehis chief interest was in the military side of the war-presented it in a straightforward, direct style-avoided the digressive storytelling of Herodotus-the account is chronological, by seasonobtained his material through personal observation or from statements made by others present at the events-his research, he declared, was made laborious by the conflicting accounts of eyewitnesses, which he weighed with great care-his approach thus had accuracy as an ideal-that he achieved it, by and large, has been confirmed by contemporary inscriptions and writingsto lend his history greater vividness and to portray the leading figures of war, he gave them lengthy speeches-these speeches represent what he thought was "most opportune" for the participants to have said (he tried to make them conform to what he or others remembered of them)Thucydides visited battle sites, examined documents, and interviewed eyewitnesses while writing his book.
19 His History of the Peloponnesian War offered explanations for why events took place and what motivated political leaders.
20 Thales was an astronomer and mathematician who could predict solar eclipses. Thales (625?-546? BC), Greek philosopher, born in Miletus, Asia Minor. He was the founder of Greek philosophy, and was considered one of the Seven Wise Men of Greece. Thales became famed for his knowledge of astronomy after predicting the eclipse of the sun that occurred on May 28, 585 BC. He is also said to have introduced geometry in Greece. According to Thales, the original principle of all things is water, from which everything proceeds and into which everything is again resolved. Before Thales, explanations of the universe were mythological, and his concentration on the basic physical substance of the world marks the birth of scientific thought. Thales left no writings; knowledge of him is derived from an account in Aristotle's Metaphysics."Thales," Microsoft(R) Encarta(R) 98 Encyclopedia. (c) Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved.[Image source:
21 [Image source: http://www.sabon.org/prana/pythagoras.jpg] Pythagoras582?-500? BCGreek philosopher and mathematiciandoctrines strongly influenced Platoborn on the island of Sámoswas instructed in the teachings of the early Ionian philosophers Thales, Anaximander, and Anaximenesis said to have been driven from Sámos by his disgust for the tyranny of Polycrates.about 530 BC Pythagoras settled in Crotona, a Greek colony in southern Italy-founded a movement with religious, political, and philosophical aims, known as Pythagoreanism (the philosophy of Pythagoras is known only through the work of his disciples)the Pythagoreans adhered to certain mysteries, similar in many respects to the Orphic mysteries: obedience and silence, abstinence from food, simplicity in dress and possessions, and the habit of frequent self-examination were prescribed-believed in immortality and in the transmigration of souls (Pythagoras himself was said to have claimed that he had been Euphorbus, a warrior in the Trojan War, and that he had been permitted to bring into his earthly life the memory of all his previous existences)the Pythagoreans were their studied odd and even numbers and prime and square numbers-they cultivated the concept of number, which became for them the ultimate principle of all proportion, order, and harmony in the universe (through such studies they established a scientific foundation for mathematics)-discovered the hypotenuse theorem, or Pythagorean theorem, which states that the square of the hypotenuse of a right triangle is equal to the sum of the squares of the other two sidesthe Pythagoreans were the first to consider the earth as a globe revolving with the other planets around a central fire-they explained the harmonious arrangement of things as that of bodies in a single, all-inclusive sphere of reality, moving according to a numerical scheme (thought that the heavenly bodies are separated from one another by intervals corresponding to the harmonic lengths of strings, they held that the movement of the spheres gives rise to a musical sound-the "harmony of the spheres”)[Image source:
22 Hippocrates460?-377? BCgreatest physician of antiquity-regarded as the father of medicineborn probably on the island of Kos, Greecetraveled widely before settling on Kos to practice and teach medicinedied in Larissa, Greece; little else is known about himhis name is associated with the Hippocratic Oath, though he probably is not the author of the documentmay actually have written only about six of the approximately 70 works attributed to him-the Hippocratic Collection probably is the remnant of the medical library of the famous Kos school of medicinehis teachings, sense of detachment, and ability to make direct, clinical observations probably influenced the other authors of these works (freed ancient medicine from superstition)his Airs, Waters, and Places (5th century BC) discussed the environmental causes of diseases-it proposes that considerations such as a town's weather, drinking water, and site along the paths of favorable winds can help a physician ascertain the general health of citizensthree other works - Prognostic, Coan Prognosis, and Aphorisms - advanced the then-revolutionary idea that, by observing enough cases, a physician can predict the course of a diseasethe idea of preventive medicine, first conceived in Regimen and Regimen in Acute Diseases, stresses not only diet but also the patient's general way of living and how it influences his or her health and convalescenceSacred Disease, a treatise on epilepsy, reveals the rudimentary knowledge of anatomy in ancient Greece-epilepsy was believed to be caused by insufficient air, which was thought to be carried by the veins to the brain and limbsin Joints, the use of the so-called Hippocratic bench is described for treating dislocationsalso of interest are Wounds in the Head, Women's Diseases, and Dismembering of the Feotus in the Womb[Image source: