# Mapping Missions and Geographic Positioning Systems.

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Mapping Missions and Geographic Positioning Systems

A vehicle pulled a large home for Norwegian and American scientists across the East Antarctic Plateau. 20 drums underneath the living module did not supply enough fuel for the entire traverse. http://traverse.npolar.no/norwegian-american-ipy-traverse/

. GPS devices were used to locate fuel depots on the route of the traverse.

A network of GPS satellites orbiting Earth can be used to guide expeditions http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Image:ConstellationGPS.gif

GPS devices use the microwave portion of the electromagnetic spectrum to communicate with the network of satellites. http://www8.garmin.com/manuals/GPS72_OwnersManual.pdf

GPS devices can indicate: The coordinates of a location The elevation at a location In what direction you are going (Heading) In what direction you should be going (Bearing) How fast you are moving How far you have traveled And much more

Getting Started with a Garmin GPS Power On/Off The PAGE button will switch off initial warning message and toggle among the various screens. The ROCKER. scrolls up and down through options.

When you are inside a building, you can use the Simulator to become familiar with the Garmin 72 pages and data fields.

The Simulator Mode Turn on the GPS Press ENTER to clear a warning statement. Press MENU. Start Simulator will be highlighted Press ENTER You will see some recently acquired data that includes Latitude, Longitude, and Elevation. Use the PAGE button to view different screens.

The GPS Information Page will indicate how many satellite signals you are receiving, your coordinates, and your elevation.

. Latitude and Longitude angles originate at the center of Earth and describe the coordinates of a location. Earth Science: The Challenge of Discovery; D.C.Heath and Co. 1991

Latitude and Longitude Systems Coordinates for locations can be expressed as Degree, Minutes, and Seconds. This system is used on USGS Topographic maps For example: 41 º 20 37 N, 71 º 56 17 W There are other ways to indicate coordinates. Meteorologists often indicate the location of Atlantic Ocean hurricanes in Degree Decimal form. For example: 22.76 N, 59.45 º W

You can change how Latitude and Longitude is expressed while in the simulator mode. Press MENU. Press MENU again. Use the ROCKER to highlight setup. Press ENTER Use the ROCKER to move to the right of the Units Tab to highlight the Location Tab. Press ENTER. Use the ROCKER to highlight your choice. You may need to scroll up to some options. Press ENTER Press PAGE This procedure is described on Page 5 of GPS Basics. A procedure to establish North Reference is also on Page 5.

When you go outside, you need to turn on your GPS unit and wait until you receive at least 4 satellite signals. Directions for turning on the Garmin GPS are on page one of GPS Basics.

You need to name and save the location of your base station, two fuel depots, and a final destination as waypoints This process is described on Page One of GPS Basics.

You can toggle to the GPS Information Page to record hard copy data in a journal. Data includes: Latitude Longitude Elevation Accuracy Date Time

After reaching your final destination you can use GOTO to navigate back to a fuel depot or your Base Station. 2. Use the ROCKER. to highlight the waypoint that will be your destination. 1. Press GOTO to display the waypoints stored in the GPS. 3. Press ENTER to select the waypoint that you want to GOTO. This is described on Page Three of GPS Basics

Data Fields on the Pointer Page can indicate Bearing toward and Distance to Base Station One Data Field can indicate Bearing Another Data Field needs to indicate Distance to Next. See Page 4 of GPS Basics to change displays in Data Fields.

Heading and Bearing on the Pointer Page when using GOTO The Black Arrow on the compass indicates a bearing to your selected waypoint. That is the direction you should be going. The Line at top of Compass dial shows the direction you are actually going (heading).

Heading and Bearing are measured in degrees. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Compass_rose

Heading and Bearing can describe your movements on the UMass Campus http://www.umass.edu/visitorsctr/Campus_Map/

Todays Mapping Mission Go to the sidewalk in front of the Integrated Science Building. Obtain enough satellite signals for 3D navigation. Refer to the Mapping Mission document for mission parameters. Mark, name, and save the location of a base station. See GPS Basics/ Establish, save and name the locations of two fuel depots and your final destination. Use the GPS Information Page to collect and record data for fuel depots and your final destination. Once you are at your final destination, use the GOTO to get bearing and distance to your Base Station. Navigate to the base station.

Locate Another Teams Fuel Depots (if time permits) Trade journals and GPS units with another team. Choose one of the following strategies to locate a fuel depot. Option 1: Use the GPS Information page to navigate to the coordinates previously recorded in a journal. The coordinates on the GPS Information page will change as you move. Option 2: Use the GOTO function and the Pointer Page to guide you to the location of a fuel depot that has previously been named and saved as a waypoint. The bearing arrow will guide you.

Applications of GPS technology include Mapping a watershed Ground truthing remote sensing data Constructing a displacement vector diagram that describes a route Any suggestions for Additional applications? Introducing students to using GPS?