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IPv4 & IPv6 address allocation - What are all those numbers about?

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Presentation on theme: "IPv4 & IPv6 address allocation - What are all those numbers about?"— Presentation transcript:

1 IPv4 & IPv6 address allocation - What are all those numbers about?
“IPv6 for e-business” Australia, March, 2007 Nurani Nimpuno APNIC

2 What is APNIC? Regional Internet Registry (RIR) for the Asia Pacific Region Regional authority for Internet Resource distribution IP addresses (IPv4 and IPv6), AS numbers, delegation Membership-based organisation Established 1993 Non-profit, neutral and impartial Not operations forum Not standards development

3 Services provided by APNIC
Internet resource distribution & registration IP addresses (IPv4, IPv6), AS numbers, reverse DNS delegations Training and education IRME, DNS, Routing and IPv6 workshops, Spam & Security tutorials Subsidised for members Regional networking Participation and representation IETF, ITU, APT, PITA, APEC, SANOG, ISOC, etc. Information dissemination APNIC Meetings Publications Web and ftp site Newsletters, global resource reports Mailing lists (Open for all) Policy coordination APNIC Open Policy Meetings 2 per year Critical infrastructure services Working with root operators (F, I, J, K, M)

4 Questions ? References APNIC home page Becoming an APNIC member
Becoming an APNIC member APNIC Training (including IPv6)

5 IP addressing

6 What is an IP address? Internet identifier including information about how to reach a location (via the Internet routing system) IP = Internet Protocol (A Protocol is “an agreed upon convention for communication”) Public infrastructure addresses Every device must have an IP address Every globally-reachable address is unique

7 IPv4 and IPv6 addresses IPv4 IPv6 32-bit* number (232)
Addresses available: ~4 billion Example: IPv6 128-bit* number (2128) Addresses available: 340 billion billion billion billion 202. 12. 29. 142 4 fields 8 bits (256 combinations) FE38: DCE3: 124C: C1A2: BA03: 6735: EF1C: 683D 8 fields * bit = binary digit 16 bits ( combinations)

8 Internet address routing
The Internet Global Routing Table 4.128/9 60.100/16 /20 135.22/16 Global Routing Table 4.128/9 60.100/16 /20 135.22/16 /24 Announce /24 Traffic /24 /24

9 Internet address routing
Traffic Local Routing Table /25 /25 /24

10 What is a domain name? Easy to remember (well, sort of) name for a computer or service e.g., Hierarchical structure providing distributed administration Not a proper (or useful!) directory service, but a basic mapping service Technical feat is in distribution and scaling

11 IP addresses vs domain names
DNS addresses flows between addresses My Computer

12 Querying the DNS – It’s all about IP!
.tv Root . .lk .in .jp 3 “Ask ” .au .org .net .com 5 “Ask ” 2 4 ? ? 7 “Ask ” ? 6 8 ? 10 “go to ” local dns 1 Print version 11 “go to ” 12

13 Querying the DNS – It’s all about IP!
.tv Root . .lk .in .jp .au .org .net .com “Ask ” “Ask ” “Ask ” “Go to ” local dns Animated version “go to ”

14 What is “my” address? IP Address = Network interface address
Not a computer’s address Nor a person’s address Modem 802.11 LAN IPv4 IPv6

15 Is “my” address permanent?
No - Customer addresses often change Dialup addresses are “dynamic”…

16 Is “my” address unique? Not necessarily… Public IP address = unique
Private* IP address = non-unique (private address) /24

17 Where do IP addresses come from?
IPv4 IPv6 Allocation Allocation Assignment end user

18 What else is an IP address?
IP addresses are… Internet infrastructure addresses a finite Common Resource not “owned” by address users not dependent upon the DNS IP does not mean “Intellectual Property”

19 Questions ? References Applying for IP addresses
Understanding IP addressing

20 Internet address management
Resource allocation and assignment References: Policy document: APNIC guidelines for IPv4 allocation and assignment requests IPv4 Resource guide:

21 Allocation and Assignment
APNIC Allocates to APNIC Member /8 APNIC Allocation APNIC Member /21 Member Allocation Allocates to downstream Assigns to end-user Downstream Assigns to end-user Sub- Allocation /23 E.g.: Australian Academic Research Network (AARNET) – APNIC’s member Allocation “A block of address space held by an IR (or downstream ISP) for subsequent allocation or assignment” Not yet used to address any networks Assignment “A block of address space used to address an operational network” May be provided to LIR customers, or used for an LIR’s infrastructure (‘self-assignment’) In the case where an APNIC member provides addresses for their customers’ infrastructure, they make an assignment. (These are addresses actually in use.) In the case where you provide addresses to a downstream provider who then further assigns the addresses, you make a sub-allocation. Your downstream provider then makes assignments to the end-user. /27 /26 /24 /25 /26 Customer / End User Customer Assignments

22 Initial IPv4 allocation
Initial (portable) allocation: /21 (4096 addresses). The allocation can be used for further assignments to customers or your own infrastructure. Lowered from /20 as APNIC 17 consensus (Aug 2004) Criteria 1a. Have used a /23 from upstream provider Demonstrated efficient address usage OR 1b. Show immediate need for /23 Can include customer projections & infrastructure equipment 2. Detailed plan for use of /22 within 1 year 3. Renumber to new space within 1 year APNIC /8 /21 New Policy proposal at APNIC-17 Status – comment period (as of 09/03/2004) It is proposed that the current size of the minimum allocation should be lowered from a /20 to a /21. It is also proposed that the respective criteria for an initial allocation should be amended such that the LIR must: - have used a /23 from their upstream provider or demonstrate an immediate need for a /23; and - demonstrate a detailed plan for use of a /22 within a year; All other aspects of the policy would remain unchanged. Slow start mechanism APNIC and NIRs apply a slow start mechanism to all new LIRs. The slow start is applied to prevent allocations of large blocks of address space that may then remain substantially unassigned. The initial allocation an LIR receives from APNIC will be the size of the minimum practical allocation which is currently a /20 (4096 addresses). Exceptions to slow start In exceptional circumstances, an LIR may receive a greater initial allocation if it can demonstrate that its immediate need for address space exceeds the standard slow start allocation. The documentation required to justify an exception to the slow start may include (but is not limited to): receipts for purchase of equipment, purchase orders, or signed project contracts indicating the immediate network requirements to be met by the LIR. References: Policy document: Member allocation Non-portable assignment Portable assignment

23 Policy development Industry self-regulatory process
Policy is developed by the AP Internet community to suit needs of region Decisions made based on consensus Public meetings Mailing lists

24 Address management objectives
Conservation Aggregation Efficient use of resources Based on demonstrated need Limit routing table growth Support provider-based routing Registration Ensure uniqueness Facilitates troubleshooting

25 Growth of global routing table
Sustainable growth? Dot-Com boom Projected routing table growth without CIDR CIDR deployment

26 Global IPv4 delegations
Experimental, private etc Available Pre-RIRs

27 Questions ? References Policy development APNIC meetings Mailing lists
APNIC meetings Mailing lists IANA global IPv4 allocations

28 IPv4 Exhaustion So, are we running out?

29 Studies in IPv4 exhaustion
All RIRs make their allocation publicly available Geoff Huston, chief scientist at APNIC, has studied the IPv4 allocation data Projections based on current and past utilisation rates Three sets of data analysed: IANA allocations to RIRs (IANA IPv4 address registry) Allocation of /8 blocks to RIRs and others RIR allocations to ISPs (RIR statistics files) Allocation of blocks to LIRs ISP announcements (BGP routing table) Amount of address space advertised

30 Data analysed - IPv4 allocations
IANA Allocations Various orgs RIR Allocations

31 Data analysed - BGP announcements
Advertised Unadvertised

32 Data analysed - complete picture
IANA Allocations RIR Allocations Advertised Unadvertised RIR pool

33 Projection - including all unused pools
Unadvertised addresses* Aug 2022 *If all IPv4 addresses not in use would be reclaimed and re-allocated

34 Projection - RIR exhaustion point
RIR pool June 2012 IANA pool July 2011 As of 5 March 2007

35 When will we ‘exhaust” IPv4?
When will we stop routing IPv4 in our networks? We will probably still route IPv4 for some decades to come B. When will the RIRs have no more IPv4 addresses to distribute? Sometime between 2010 and 2013 C. When will IANA have no more IPv4 addresses to pass to the RIRs Sometime between 2009 and 2012

36 IPv4 exhaustion - conclusions
We are not running out of IP addresses now Projections gives us a few more years No need for Denial, Panic, Anger, Blame shifting, Bargaining… Impossible to predict future Policies change New technologies can emerge Market behaviour can change IPv6 RIRs support the deployment of IPv6 IPv6 is available and ready Transition will take time Necessary to start now!

37 Questions ? References RIR Allocation statistics Geoff Huston’s study
Geoff Huston’s study “BGP - the movie” (58mb) Animated, narrated version of the statistics IPv4 Countdown proposal

38 IPv6 address architecture

39 Rationale – why IPv6 was developed?
Address depletion concerns Squeeze on available addresses space Probably will never run out, but will be harder to obtain End to end connectivity no longer visible Widespread use of NAT IPv6 provides much larger IP address space than IPv4 Increase of backbone routing table size Current backbone routing table size > 230K CIDR does not guarantee efficient and scalable hierarchy Routing aggregation is still a concern in IPv6 IPv6 address architecture is more hierarchical than IPv4

40 IPv6 addressing 128 bits of address space (2128)
Addresses available: 340 billion billion billion billion Hexadecimal values of eight 16 bit fields X:X:X:X:X:X:X:X (X=16 bit number, ex: A2FE) 16 bit number is converted to a 4 digit hexadecimal number Example: FE38:DCE3:124C:C1A2:BA03:6735:EF1C:683D Abbreviated form of address 4EED:0023:0000:0000:0000:036E:1250:2B00 →4EED:23:0:0:0:36E:1250:2B00 →4EED:23::36E:1250:2B00 (Null value can be used only once)

41 IPv6 addressing structure
128 bits 127 32 16 16 64 LIR /32 Customer site /64 - /48 Device /128 Subnet /64

42 Address management objectives
IPv4 IPv6 Conservation Efficient usage Aggregation Efficient use of resources Avoid wasteful practices Limit routing table growth Hierarchical distribution Registration Registration Minimise overhead Ensure uniqueness Facilitates troubleshooting Ease of access to resources

43 IPv6 initial allocation
Initial allocation size is /32 End site assignments /64 - /48 (size is up to ISP) Initial allocation criteria ‘Plan’ to connect 200 end sites within 2 years Not be an end-site Policy update: APNIC-17 It is proposed that the APNIC Secretariat continue to allocate global IPv6 space to organisations in accordance with the criteria stated in the 'IPv6 allocation and assignment policy' to both networks that are to be connected to the global IPv6 Internet and to unconnected networks. Additional reasoning is that there currently is no alternative for users wishing to deploy IPv6 address space in the context of a private network Status: Approved by consensus at APNIC 17. Proposal submitted to the policy mailing list for eight week comment period. Existing IPv4 infrastructure and customer base Version one of the proposal approved by consensus at APNIC 17 with the modification that there is an added a requirement for LIRs to have plan to move some of their customers from IPv4 to within two years. Version two submitted to the mailing list for eight week comment period.Discussion documentIPv6 allocations to IPv4 networks Comment period on mailing list 8 March 2004Announced Comments close 3 May 2004

44 IPv6 portable assignment for multihoming
New policy to allow IPv6 portable assignment to end-sites Direct assignment to end site Allows end user organisations to get an independent assignment Size: /48, or a shorter prefix if the end site can justify it To be multihomed within 3 months To be implemented 9 March 2007 (2) Assignment criteria: (2-a) The end site which is assigned IPv6 portable address space must be multihomed using the assigned portable address space in three (3) months. (2-b) If the portable address space is not used for multihoming after three (3) months, the address space should be reclaimed. (2-c) The end site which is assigned IPv6 portable address space pays the normal APNIC fee for the space. (3) Portable address space: (3-a) The portable assignment should be made from a specified block separate from address space used for portable allocations (3-b) The portable assignment size to an end-site should be a /48, or a shorter prefix if the end-site can justify it.

45 IPv6 deployment - Asia Japan China Korea Korea
IPv6 in actual business services IPv6 connections to residential users via tunneling (NTT Communications) Multi channels, video-on-demand (Plala & Online TV) China China Next Generation Internet (CNGI) project National initiative 2002 CNGI Backbone 3040 giga POPs, 300 campus networks & international links Korea National initiative: U-biquitous Society IPv6 included in strategy for the development of IT and telecommunication industries 2006 target: Commercialisation of IPv6 applications & content Japan Continuing R&D but starting to use IPv6 in actual business services NTT Communications: Nov 2005 IPv6 connection services to residential users via tunnelling /64 per end user Plala and OnlineTV: July 2004 4th Media Service Multi channels and video on demand distribution services via IPv6 multicast Korea National level initiative Construction of U-biquitous Society IPv6 is as one of IT839 strategies IT839 – Strategy for the development of the IT and telecommunication industries Korea Telecom 2006 target Commercialisation of IPv6 applications and contents Multimedia contents and network/mobile games Multimedia Message Service (MMS) IPv6 Forum Korea China China Next Generation Internet (CNGI) project Started in 2002 as national initiative CNGI backbone: giga PoPs, 300 campus networks and international links Annual IPv6 Global summit in China (April 2007)

46 IPv6 deployment - Europe
EU government initiative to promote IPv6 R&D Information Society Technologies (IST) IPv6 cluster Nokia: IPv4/IPv6 Dual Stack CDMA mobiles EU government initiative to promote IPv6 R&D Information Society Technologies (IST) IPv6 Cluster Provides comprehensive information for policy makers, journalist, ISP, manager, engineer, end user NOKIA IPV4/IPv6 dual stack CDMA mobile phone in 2003 Collaboration with NTT Communications to develop a Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) terminal implemented with Mobile IPv6, IPSec and RFID

47 IPv6 deployment - USA USA Transition plan for IPv6
Jun 2008: All agencies infrastructure to be using IPv6 All new IT purchases must be IPv6 compatible Department of Defence (DoD) Plan to transition to IPv6 since Oct 2003 Transition plan for IPv6 Issued by Office of Management and Budget (Aug 2005) Set Jun 2008: All agencies’ infrastructure (network backbone) must be using IPv6 All new IT purchases must be IPv6 compatible Department of Defence (DoD) Plan to transition to IPv6 since Oct 2003

48 IPv6 Allocations in Asia Pacific 1999
JP 3 KR 2 AU 1 SG Total 7

49 IPv6 Allocations in Asia Pacific 2000 (cumulative total)
JP 12 KR 5 TW 2 CN 1 AU SG Total 22

50 IPv6 Allocations in Asia Pacific 2001 (cumulative total)
JP 29 KR 11 TW 2 CN 1 AU SG HK MY Total 48

51 IPv6 Allocations in Asia Pacific 2002 (cumulative total)
JP 50 KR 15 TW 7 CN 4 AU SG HK 2 MY PG 1 TH 3 IN Total 93

52 IPv6 Allocations in Asia Pacific 2003 (cumulative total)
JP 64 KR 18 TW 13 CN 9 AU 6 SG 5 HK 2 MY 3 PG 1 TH IN PH ID NZ Total 130

53 IPv6 Allocations in Asia Pacific 2004 (cumulative total)
JP 78 KR 31 TW 16 CN 14 AU 8 SG 5 HK 4 MY PG 1 TH IN PH 2 ID NZ VN MO Total 183

54 IPv6 Allocations in Asia Pacific 2005 (cumulative total)
JP 90 KR 35 TW 20 CN 16 AU 13 SG 6 HK MY 8 PG 1 TH 7 IN PH 5 ID NZ VN 2 MO PK Total 231

55 IPv6 Allocations in Asia Pacific 2006 (cumulative total)
JP 93 KR 37 TW 26 CN 18 AU 13 SG 6 HK 8 MY 11 PG 1 TH 9 IN PH 7 ID 12 NZ 10 VN 2 MO PK 4 AP BD Total 272 AfriNIC: 26 APNIC: 272 ARIN: 221 LACNIC: 70 RIPE NCC: 613 Total: 1201

56 IPv6 - Internet for everything!

57 Questions ? References IPv6 FAQ APNIC helpdesk IPv6 Forum
APNIC helpdesk Any queries! Mail/phone/live chat IPv6 Forum

58 nurani at apnic dot net
Thank you nurani at apnic dot net Material available at:

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