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© 2006 Pearson Education 1 Obj: 1.2, to understand networks HW: Review sheet Quiz next class Sections 1.0 – 1.2 Do Now: p.47 #1.4 and 1.5 C1 D3
© 2006 Pearson Education 2 Networks A network is two or more computers that are connected so that data and resources can be shared Most computers are connected to some kind of network Each computer has its own network address, which uniquely identifies it among the others
© 2006 Pearson Education 3 A file server is a network computer dedicated to storing programs and data that are shared among network users
© 2006 Pearson Education 4 Network Connections Each computer in a network could be directly connected to every other computer in the network These are called point-to-point connections This technique is not practical for more than a few close machines Adding a computer requires a new communication line for each computer already in the network
© 2006 Pearson Education 5 Network Connections Most networks share a single communication line Adding a new computer to the network is relatively easy Network traffic must take turns using the line, which introduces delays Often information is broken down in parts, called packets, which are sent to the receiving machine and then reassembled
© 2006 Pearson Education 6 Local-Area Networks LAN A Local-Area Network (LAN) covers a small distance and a small number of computers A LAN often connects the machines in a single room or building
© 2006 Pearson Education 7 Wide-Area Networks LAN A Wide-Area Network (WAN) connects two or more LANs, often over long distances A LAN usually is owned by one organization, but a WAN often connects groups in different countries LAN
© 2006 Pearson Education 8 The Internet The Internet is a WAN which spans the entire planet The word Internet comes from the term internetworking, which implies communication among networks It started as a United States government project, sponsored by the Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA) - originally it was called the ARPANET
© 2006 Pearson Education 9 The Internet grew quickly throughout the 1980s and 90s Less than 600 computers were connected to the Internet in 1983; by the year 2000 there were over 10 million
© 2006 Pearson Education 10 TCP/IP A protocol is a set of rules that determine how things communicate with each other The software which manages Internet communication follows a suite of protocols called TCP/IP The Internet Protocol (IP) determines the format of the information as it is transferred
© 2006 Pearson Education 11 The Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) dictates how messages are reassembled and handles lost information
© 2006 Pearson Education 12 IP and Internet Addresses Each computer on the Internet has a unique IP address, such as: 18.104.22.168 Most computers also have a unique Internet name, which also is referred to as an Internet address: spencer.villanova.edukant.gestalt-llc.com
© 2006 Pearson Education 13 The first part indicates a particular computer ( spencer ) The rest is the domain name, indicating the organization ( villanova.edu )
© 2006 Pearson Education 14 Domain Names The last part of each domain name, called a top- level domain (TLD) indicates the type of organization: edu com org net - educational institution - commercial entity - non-profit organization - network-based organization Sometimes the suffix indicates the country: New TLDs have recently been added: biz, info, tv, name uk au ca se - United Kingdom - Australia - Canada - Sweden
© 2006 Pearson Education 15 Domain Names A domain name can have several parts Unique domain names mean that multiple sites can have individual computers with the same local name When used, an Internet address is translated to an IP address by software called the Domain Name System (DNS) There is no one-to-one correspondence between the sections of an IP address and the sections of an Internet address
© 2006 Pearson Education 16 The World Wide Web The World Wide Web allows many different types of information to be accessed using a common interface A browser is a program which accesses and presents information text, graphics, video, sound, audio, executable programs text, graphics, video, sound, audio, executable programs
© 2006 Pearson Education 17 A Web document usually contains links to other Web documents, creating a hypermedia environment The term Web comes from the fact that information is not organized in a linear fashion
© 2006 Pearson Education 18 The World Wide Web Web documents are often defined using the HyperText Markup Language (HTML) Information on the Web is found using a Uniform Resource Locator (URL): http://www.lycos.comhttp://www.villanova.edu/webinfo/domains.html ftp://java.sun.com/applets/animation.zip A URL indicates a protocol (http), a domain, and possibly specific documents
© 2006 Pearson Education 19 Questions How many computers must be connected to be called a network? (2) What is the difference between a LAN and a WAN? (LAN: small distance, less computers; WAN: connects two or more LANs) Is the internet at LAN or a WAN? (WAN)
© 2006 Pearson Education 20 More Questions What does TCP stand for? (Transmission Control Protocol) What does TCP do? (determines formal of info as it’s transferred) What does IP stand for? (Internet Protocol) What does it do? (dictates how messages are reassembled and handles lost info)
© 2006 Pearson Education 21 More Questions In “cread.marsd.org”, which part is the domain name? (marsd.org) Name one of the new TLDs (top level domains). (biz, info, tv, name)
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