Presentation on theme: "Sociology in Our Times The Essentials"— Presentation transcript:
1 Sociology in Our Times The Essentials Diana Kendall Fourth Edition
2 The Sociological Perspective and Research Process Chapter 1The Sociological Perspective and Research Process
3 Chapter Outline Putting Social Life into Perspective Comparing Sociology with Other Social SciencesThe Development of Sociological ThinkingContemporary Theoretical PerspectivesThe Sociological Research ProcessResearch MethodsEthical Issues in Sociological Research
4 Why Study Sociology?Gain better understanding of ourselves and our social world.See how behavior is shaped by the groups to which we belong.Gain insight into society and the larger world order.
5 Careers in Social Science Health and Human Services: Counseling, Education, Medicine, Social WorkLaw: Criminal Justice, LawBusiness: Advertising, Labor Relations, Management, MarketingCommunications: Public Relations, Journalism, BroadcastingAcademia
6 The Sociological Imagination Ability to see a relationship between individual experiences and society.The link between personal experience and social contexts.Distinguishes between personal troubles and social issues.
7 Sociology and Anthropology Anthropology is the study of human existence over geographic space and evolutionary time.Sociology is the study of contemporary social organization, relations, and change.
8 Sociology and Psychology Psychology is the study of behavior and mental processes—what occurs in the mind.Sociological research examines the effects of groups, organizations, and institutions on social life.
9 Sociology and Political Science Political scientists concentrate on political institutions.Sociologists study political institutions within the context of other social institutions, such as families.
10 Early Social Thinkers: Auguste Comte Considered to be the “founder of sociology.”Believed objective knowledge could only be attained through science.
11 Early Social Thinkers: Harriet Martineau Focused on social distinctions based on class, race, and gender.Believed society would improve if women and men were treated equally, enlightened reform occurred,and there was cooperation among all social classes.
12 Early Social Thinkers: Emile Durkheim Believed the limits of human potential are socially, not biologically based.Considered the founding figure of the functionalist theoretical tradition.
13 Early Social Thinkers: Karl Marx Viewed history as a clash between conflicting ideas and forces.Believed class conflict produced social change and a better society.Combined ideas from philosophy, history, and social science into a new theory.
14 Early Social Thinkers: Max Weber Believed sociological research should exclude a researcher’s personal values and economic interests.Researchers should try to see the world as others see it.Provided insights on rationalization, bureaucracy and religion.
15 Jane AdamsFounded Hull House, one of the most famous settlement houses, in Chicago.One of the authors of a methodology use by sociologists for the next forty years.Awarded a Nobel Prize for assistance to the underprivileged.
16 W. E. B. Du BoisOne of the first to note double-consciousness, the identity conflict of being both a black and an American.Pointed out that people in the U.S. espouse the values of democracy, freedom, and equality while they accept racism and group discrimination.
17 Major Theoretical Perspectives TheoryView of SocietyFunctionalistComposed of interrelated parts that work together.ConflictCharacterized by social inequality.Symbolic InteractionistThe sum of interactions of people and groups.Postmodernist MicrolevelPostindustrialization, consumerism, and global communications bring into question assumptions about social life and the nature of reality.
18 Sociological Research Conventional (Quantitative) ResearchGoal is objectivity. Focus is on data that can be measured numerically.Qualitative researchWords rather than numbers are used to analyze meanings and patterns of social relationships.
19 Conventional Research Model Define the research problem.Review previous research.Formulate the hypothesis.Develop the research design.Collect and analyze the data.Draw conclusions and report the findings.
20 Qualitative Research Method Problem formulation is used to clarify a research question and create questions for participants.Researchers collect and analyze data to assess the validity of the starting proposition.Data is gathered in natural settings (homes and workplaces) rather than a research setting.
21 Research Methods: Survey Research Describes a population without interviewing each individual.Standardized questions force respondents into categories in which they may not belong.Relies on self-reported information and some people may not be truthful.
22 Research Methods: Analysis of Existing Data Analyze data originally collected by others.Materials studied may include:written records (books, diaries, poems, and graffiti)narratives and visual texts (movies, television shows, advertisements, greeting cards)material culture (music, art, and even garbage)
23 Research Methods: Field Research Study of social life in its natural setting.Observing and interviewing people where they live, work, and play.Generates observations that are best described verbally rather than numerically.
24 Approaches to Field Research Participant observationCollecting observations while part of the activities of the group being studied.EthnographyDetailed study of the life and activities of a group of people over a period of years.
25 Research Methods: Experiments Study the impact of certain variables on subjects’ attitudes or behavior.Designed to create “real-life” situations.Used to demonstrate a cause-and-effect relationship between variables.