What is Emotion? Physiological arousal Cognitive interpretation Subjective feelings Behavioral expression Emotion & motivation work together – Emotion = arousal based on situation – Motivation = how arousal becomes action
Why We Have Emotions Genetics Learning early in life Arousal states help organisms cope with significant, recurring situations Emotional responses are components of many psychological disorders
Physiology of Emotion ANS controls arousal – sympathetic nervous system – Adaptive (Yerkes-Dodson) – optimum arousal for survival Similar physical arousal for fear, anger, sexual arousal – Yet we feel different…
Psychological Theories of Emotion Two-Factor Theory: This theory suggests that the emotions we feel depend on two things: 1) our internal physical state 2) the external situation we find ourselves in. – Attractive female researcher study (pg 308)
You are walking down a dark alley late at night. You hear footsteps behind you and you begin to tremble, your heart beats faster, and your breathing deepens. Upon noticing this arousal you realize that is comes from the fact that you are walking down a dark alley by yourself. This behavior is dangerous and therefore you feel the emotion of fear. Schachter-Singer
You are walking down a dark alley late at night. You hear footsteps behind you and you begin to tremble, your heart beats faster, and your breathing deepens. You notice these physiological changes and interpret them as your body's preparation for a fearful situation. You then experience fear. James-Lange Theory
You are walking down a dark alley late at night. You hear footsteps behind you and you begin to tremble, your heart beats faster, and your breathing deepens. At the same time as these physiological changes occur you also experience the emotion of fear. Cannon-Bard Theory
You are walking down a dark alley late at night. You hear footsteps behind you and you think it may be a mugger so you begin to tremble, your heart beats faster, and your breathing deepens and at the same time experience fear. Lazarus
Psychological Theories of Emotion Opponent-Process Theory: Theory that we trigger one emotion by suppressing its opposite emotion. Ex. Drugs-the highs experienced by some drugs are replaced with lows (withdrawals). Eventually people take drugs not for the highs, but to avoid the lows.
Yerkes-Dodson Law Yerkes-Dodson law: A theory that a degree of psychological arousal helps performance, but only to a certain point. Too much or too little arousal can decrease performance. Also known as the Inverted U.
Arousal and Performance Performance peaks at lower levels of arousal for difficult tasks, and at higher levels for easy or well-learned tasks
Universality of Emotions Facial expressions of emotion are universal Other forms of expressing emotions differ by culture
Seven Basic Emotions Paul Ekman, a leading psychologist in emotions, suggests humans everywhere can recognize seven basic emotions: sadness, fear, anger, disgust, contempt, happiness and surprise. A sample of 6 of Ekman’s emotions. Which one is missing?
Identifying Emotion Differences in Emotions Temperatures & hormone secretions Facial muscles Brain activation – Right PFC – negative emotions – Left – positive emotions
Detecting Lies Difficult to detect deceiving emotions Liars left prefrontal cortex, anterior cingulate cortex
Emotion - Lie Detectors Polygraph machine commonly used in attempts to detect lies measures several of the physiological responses accompanying emotion perspiration cardiovascular breathing changes
Emotion--Lie Detectors Control Question Up to age 18, did you ever physically harm anyone? Relevant Question Did [the deceased] threaten to harm you in any way? Relevant > Control --> Lie
Emotion-- Lie Detectors 50 Innocents 50 Theives 1/3 of innocent declared guilty 1/4 of guilty declared innocent (from Kleinmuntz & Szucko, 1984) Percentage Innocent people Guilty people 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 Judged innocent by polygraph Judged guilty by polygraph
Emotion-- Lie Detectors Is 70% accuracy good? Assume 5% of 1000 employees actually guilty test all employees 285 will be wrongly accused What about 95% accuracy? Assume 1 in 1000 employees actually guilty test all employees (including 999 innocents) 50 wrongly declared guilty 1 of 51 testing positive are guilty (~2%)
Reading Emotion Age may not matter in reading facial expressions It is possible that children as young as 5 may be able to recognize others’ facial expressions and emotions
Expressed Emotion Verbally & nonverbally – Read fear and anger mostly from eyes – Absence of gestures, facial expressions, and tones of voice in e-mails deprives us of important information Women better at emotional cues – Better lie detectors – Greater emotional responsiveness – Experience emotional events more deeply, greater brain activation
Experienced Emotion Adaptation-Level Phenomenon tendency to form judgments relative to a “neutral” level brightness of lights volume of sound level of income defined by our prior experience Relative Deprivation perception that one is worse off relative to those with whom one compares oneself
Origins of Emotions – Two Paths Two distinct emotional pathways in the brain. – Fast “low road” – unconscious level, respond immediately or quickly to stimuli Bypasses cortex, directly to amygdala – Slow “high road” – conscious processing of stimuli Uses cerebral cortex
The Limbic System While the two pathways differ, they do have some things in common. Both rely heavily on the limbic system. The amygdala plays an especially important role in both emotion pathways. In the past it was thought that the amygdala was simply involved in negative emotions. Recently it has been discovered that it plays a role in positive emotions as well.
Cognition and Emotion The brain’s shortcut for emotions
Expressed Emotion People more speedily detect an angry face than a happy one (Ohman, 2001a)
Expressed Emotion Gender and expressiveness Men Women Sad Happy Scary Film Type 16 14 12 10 8 6 4 2 0 Number of expressions
Spillover Effect Experiment in which subjects were injected w/epinephrine Waiting room w/participant who was irritated or euphoric No emotional response when attributed heart race, rapid breathing to drug When told drug would have “no effects”, they took on the emotion of the other participant
Display rules – Norms that tell people whether, which, how, and when emotions should be displayed Facial feedback – Facial expression of anger or happiness intensifies feelings – Ex: Smiling while watching comedy makes it funnier – Putting a smile on your face can make you happier!
Experienced Emotion Catharsis emotional release catharsis hypothesis “releasing” aggressive energy (through action or fantasy) relieves aggressive urges Feel-good, do-good phenomenon people’s tendency to be helpful when already in a good mood
Experienced Emotion Does money buy happiness? Year 100% 90% 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% Average per-person after-tax income in 1995 dollars Percentage describing themselves as very happy $20,000 $19,000 $18,000 $17,000 $16,000 $15,000 $14,000 $13,000 $12,000 $11,000 $10,000 $9,000 $8,000 $7,000 $6,000 $5,000 $4,000 1930 1940 1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 Percentage very happy Personal income
Experienced Emotion Values and life satisfaction Money Love 1.00 2.00 3.00 4.00 5.00 6.00 7.00 Life satisfaction 0.6 0.4 0.2 0.0 -0.2 -0.4 Importance scores
Happiness is... Researchers Have Found That Happy People Tend to Have high self-esteem (in individualistic countries) Be optimistic, outgoing, and agreeable Have close friendships or a satisfying marriage Have work and leisure that engage their skills Have a meaningful religious faith Sleep well and exercise However, Happiness Seems Not Much Related to Other Factors, Such as Age Gender (women are more often depressed, but also more often joyful) Education levels Parenthood (having children or not) Physical attractiveness
References Kaplan, H. Emotion (PPT file). Retrieved from AP Psychology Commune web Site: http://www.appsychology.com http://www.appsychology.com Myers, D.G. (2011). Myers’ psychology for AP. Holland, MI: Worth Publishers.