2 EmotionEmotion – A four part process that involves physiological arousal, subjective feelings, cognitive interpretation, and behavioral expression – all of which interact, rather than occurring in a linear sequence.Helps organisms deal with important events.
3 Evolution and EmotionEmotions have evolved to help us respond to important situation and to convey our intentions to others.
4 Evolution and Emotion Example Sexual jealousy probably has an evolutionary basis because mate infidelity threatens the individual’s chances of producing offspring.
5 Cultural Universals in Emotional Expression Most emotions, but not all, are universally understood regardless of culture.Facial expressions are used to convey universal messages and motions.
6 Cultural Universals in Emotional Expression Display Rules – The permissible ways of displaying emotions in a particular society.
7 Counting the Emotions How many emotions are there? Probably over 500, but 7 are universally recognized.AngerDisgustFearHappinessSadnessContemptSurprise
8 The Purpose of Emotions Emotions are normally meant to help us adapt to our environment and signal others how we are feeling.But, if too intense or prolonged, they may become destructive and detrimental to our mental health.
9 Emotional Differences b/t Men and Women BiologyCultureGender StereotypesDifferences in Punishment and Reinforcement
10 Where Do Emotions Come From? Unconscious Emotions:The Limbic SystemFight or Flight – Attack, Defense, RetreatThe Reticular FormationResponsible for emotional reactions such as fear and anger in emergency situations.Early warning system.Communicates with Amygdala and Thalamus to help arouse the brain in emergencies.
11 Where Do Emotions Come From? Conscious EmotionsThe Cerebral CortexInterprets events and associates them with memories and feelings to create emotions.Lateralization of Emotion – The different influences of the two brain hemispheres on various emotions.Left Hemisphere influences positive emotions.Right Hemisphere influences negative emotions.
12 Where Do Emotions Come From? Autonomic Nervous SystemPlays the key role in emotionally arousing your internal organs (like your heart) in different situations.
13 Where do Emotions Come From? Sympathetic Division of Nervous System – Helps us respond to unpleasant stimuli.Parasympathetic Division of the Nervous System – Helps us respond to pleasant stimuli.
14 Where Do Emotions Come From? The Role of HormonesSerotonin – DepressionEpinephrine – FearNorepinephrine – AngerSteroids – Change the way nerve cells that release hormones are excited.Why people on steroids become angry easier… Roid Rage.
15 Psychological Theories of Emotion James – Lange TheoryThe proposal that an emotion provoking stimulus produces a physical response that, in turn, produces and emotion.
16 Psychological Theories of Emotion Cannon-Bard TheoryThe counter-proposal that an emotional feeling and an internal physiological response occur at the same time: One is not the cause of the other.Both were believed to be the result of cognitive appraisal of the situation.
17 Psychological Theories of Emotion Schachter’s Two Factor TheoryThe proposal claiming that emotion results from the cognitive appraisal of both physical arousal (Factor 1) and an emotion provoking stimulus (Factor 2).
18 Psychological Theories of Emotion Cognitive Appraisal TheoryTheory of emotion which theorizes that individuals decide on an appropriate emotion following the event.Make a conscious decision about how we should feel after the event has occurred.
19 Psychological Theories of Emotion Opponent-Process TheoryTheory of emotion which Theorizes that emotions have pairs.When one is triggered, the other is suppressed.Example – When we feel happy, sad is the suppressed emotion.
20 Emotion and Athletic Performance Inverted U Function – Describes the relationship between arousal and performance.Both high and low levels of arousal produce lower performance than does a moderate level of arousal.Sensation seekers – Individuals who have a biological need for higher levels of stimulation than do other people.
21 How Much Control do We Have Over Our Emotions? Although emotional responses are not always consciously regulated, we can learn to control them.
22 How Much Control do We Have Over Our Emotions? Emotional Intelligence – The ability to understand and control emotional responses.Helps significantly in having the ability to properly control our emotions.
23 How Much Control do We Have Over Our Emotions? Detecting DeceptionsLie Detectors (Polygraphs) used to detect deceptions to determine if people are lying.Can be inaccurate and have many flaws.Physiological signs are not always telling of whether or not people are lying, which is why they’re often inaccurate.Polygraphs are really just arousal detectors.