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Presentation on theme: "PSYCHOLOGICAL ASSESSMENT AND MEASUREMENT"— Presentation transcript:



3 History of Psychological Testing
circa 1000 BC. Chinese introduced written tests to help fill civil service positions 1850 The United States begins civil service examinations. 1890 James Cattell develops a "mental test" to assess college students . Test includes measures of strength, resistance to pain, and reaction time. 1905 Binet-Simon scale of mental development used to classify mentally retarded children in France. 1914 World War I produces need in U.S. to quickly classify incoming recruits. Army Alpha test and Army Beta test developed. 1916 Terman develops Stanford - Binet test and develops the idea of Intelligence Quotient factor analysis, projective tests, and personality inventories first appear. vocational interest measures developed item response theory and neuropsychological testing developed present : Wide spread adaptation of computerized testing. "Smart" Tests which can give each individual different test items develop  

4 Early origins China 2200BC First form of test “fitness for office”
Refined and developed and written exams were introduced 202BC Civil law, military affairs, agriculture, revenue and geography

5 The start in psychiatry
1885 German Hubert von Grashey Physician Developed the antecedent of the memory drum Conrad Rieger Psychiatrist Test battery for brain damage 100 hours to administer

6 History of Psychology (387 BC to Present)
387 BC Plato suggested that the brain is the mechanism of mental processes. 335 BC Aristotle suggested that the heart is the mechanism of mental processes. 1774 AD Franz Mesmer detailed his cure for some mental illness, originally called mesmerism and now known as hypnosis. 1793 Philippe Pinel released the first mental patients from confinement in the first massive movement for more humane treatment of the mentally ill. 1808 Franz Gall wrote about phrenology (the idea that a person's skull shape and placement of bumps on the head can reveal personality traits. 1834 Ernst Heinrich Weber published his perception theory of 'Just Noticeable DIfference,' now known as Weber's Law.

7 1848 Phineas Gage suffered brain damage when an iron pole pierces his brain.  His personality was changed but his intellect remained intact suggesting that an area of the brain plays a role in personality. 1859 Charles Darwin published the On the Origin of Species, detailing his view of evolution and expanding on the theory of 'Survival of the fittest.‘ 1861 French physician Paul Broca discovered an area in the left frontal lobe that plays a key role in language development. 1869 Sir Francis Galton, Influenced by Charles Darwin's 'Origin of the Species,' publishes 'Hereditary Genius,' and argues that intellectual abilities are biological in nature. 1874 Carl Wernicke published his work on the frontal lobe, detailing that damage to a specific area damages the ability to understand  or produce language

8 1878 G. Stanley Hall received the first American Ph.D. in psychology.  He later founded the American Psychological Association. 1879 Wilhelm Wundt founded the first formal laboratory of Psychology at the University of Leipzig, marking the formal beginning of the study of human emotions, behaviors, and cognitions. 1883 The first laboratory of psychology in America is established at Johns Hopkins University. 1885 Herman Ebbinghaus introduced the nonsense syllable as a means to study memory processes. 1886 Sigmund Freud began performing therapy in Vienna, marking the beginning of personality theory. 1890 The term "Mental Tests" was coined by James Cattell, beginning the specialization in psychology now known as psychological assessment.

9 James McKeen Cattell Studied with Galton
“Mental tests and measurements” Strength of hand squeeze as measured by dynamometer Rate of hand movement through a distance of 50 centimeters Two-point threshold for touch minimum distance at which two points are still perceived as separate Degree of pressure needed to cause pain rubber tip pressed against the forehead Weight differentiation discern the relative weights of identical-looking boxes varying by one gram from 100 to 110 grams Reaction time for sound Time for naming colors Bisection of a 50-centimeter line Judgment of 10 seconds of time Number of letters repeated on one hearing Clark Wissler (student) aimed to demonstrate test result could predict academic performance

10 Francis Galton ( ) Continued with brass instruments but increased sample size Clever ways of collecting data 1st battery of tests Sensory and motor measures Height, weight, hand length, head breadth, arm span, length of middle finger, strength of hand squeeze, vital capacity of lungs, highest audible tone, reaction time

11 Alfred Binet founded the first laboratory of psychodiagnosis.
1890 Sir Francis Galton developed the technique known as the correlation to better understand the interrelationships in his intelligence studies. William James published 'Principles of Psychology,' that later became the foundation for functionalism. New York State passed the State Care Act, ordering indigent mentally ill patients out of poor-houses and into state hospitals for treatment and developing the first institution in the U.S. for psychiatric research. 1892 Foundation of the American Psychological Association (APA) headed by G. Stanley Hall, with an initial membership of 42. 1895 Alfred Binet founded the first laboratory of psychodiagnosis. 1896 Writings by John Dewey began the school of thought known as functionalism.

12 Alfred Binet's Intelligence Test was published in France.
1896 The first psychological clinic was developed at the University of Pennsylvania marking the birth of clinical psychology. 1898 Edward Thorndike developed the 'Law of Effect,' arguing that "a stimulus-response chain is strengthened if the outcome of that chain is positive."  1900 Sigmund Freud published 'Interpretation of Dreams' marking the beginning of Psychoanalytic Thought. 1905 Alfred Binet's Intelligence Test was published in France. 1906 The Journal of Abnormal Psychology was founded by Morton Prince. Ivan Pavlov published the first studies on Classical Conditioning.

13 Alfred Binet ( ) 1904 French commission to identify retardation 1905 Binet-Simon scale Differed to previous tests Did not precisely measure a single construct Brief and practical Pragmatic view of intelligence Standardised conditions and norms 1911 Third version of the B-S scale Adult range Mental age scoring and later a quotient 1916 Standford-Binet Introduction of IQ US use with immigrants

14 The 1905 Binet-Simon Scale 1. Follows a moving object with the eyes.
2. Grasps a small object which is touched. 3. Grasps a small object which is seen. 4. Recognizes the difference between a square of chocolate and a square of wood. 5. Finds and eats a square of chocolate wrapped in paper. 6. Executes simple commands and imitates simple gestures. 7. Points to familiar named objects, e.g., “Show me the cup.” 8. Points to objects represented in pictures, e.g., “Put your finger on the window.” 9. Names objects in pictures, e.g., “What is this?” 10. Compares two lines of markedly unequal length. 11. Repeats three spoken digits. 12. Compares two weights. 13. Shows susceptibility to suggestion. 14. Defines common words by function. 15. Repeats a sentence of 15 words. 16. Tells how two common objects are different, e.g., “paper and cardboard.” 17. Names from memory as many as possible of 13 objects displayed on a board for 30 seconds.

15 18. Reproduces from memory two designs shown for 10 seconds.
19. Repeats a longer series of digits than in item 11 to test immediate memory. 20. Tells how two common objects are alike, e.g., “butterfly and flea.” 21. Compares two lines of slightly unequal length. 22. Compares five blocks to put them in order of weight. 23. Indicates which of the previous five weights the examiner has removed. 24. Produces rhymes, e.g., “What rhymes with ‘school’?” 25. A word completion test based on those proposed by Ebbinghaus. 26. Puts three nouns, e.g., “Paris, river, fortune” (or three verbs) in a sentence. 27. Responds to 25 abstract (comprehension) questions, e.g., “When a person has offended you, and comes to offer his apologies, what should you do?” 28. Reverses the hands of a clock. 29. After paper folding and cutting, draws the form of the resulting holes. 30. Defines abstract words by designating the difference between, e.g., “boredom and weariness.” The 1908 scale had 58 problems

16 1911 Alfred Adler left Freud's Psychoanalytic Group to form his own school of thought, accusing Freud of overemphasizing sexuality and basing his theory on his own childhood. Edward Thorndike published first article on animal intelligence leading to the theory of Operant Conditioning. 1912 William Stern developed the original formula for the Intelligence Quotient (IQ) after studying the scores on Binet's intelligence test.  The formula is Max Wertheimer published research on the perception of movement, marking the beginnings of Gestalt Psychology. 1913 John E. Watson published 'Psychology as a Behaviorist Views It' marking the beginnings of Behavioral Psychology.

17 1913 Carl G. Jung departed from Freudian views and developed his own theories citing Freud's inability to acknowledge religion and spirituality.  His new school of thought became known as Analytical Psychology. 1916 Stanford-Binet intelligence test was published in the United States. 1917 Robert Yerkes (President of APA at the time) developed the Army Alpha and Beta Tests to measure intelligence in a group format.  The tests were adopted for use with all new recruits in the U.S. military a year later. 1920 John B. Watson and Rosalie Rayner published the Little Albert experiments, demonstrating that fear could be classically conditioned. 1921 Psychological Corporation launched the first psychological test development company, not only commercializing psychological testing, but allowing testing to take place at offices and clinics rather than only at universities and research facilities. 1925 Wolfgang Kohler published 'The Mentality of Apes' which became a major component of Gestalt Psychology.

18 WWI and group tests Yerkes created a test to classify and assign new recruits: Army Alpha. (1) following oral directions (2) arithmetical reasoning (3) practical judgment (4) synonym–antonym pairs (5) disarranged sentences (6) number series completion (7) analogies (8) information Army Beta Visual perceptual and motor tests for illiterate people

19 The Army Alpha


21 The Army Beta


23 1925 Wolfgang Kohler published 'The Mentality of Apes' which became a major component of Gestalt Psychology. 1927 Anna Freud, daughter of Sigmund Freud, published her first book expanding her father's ideas in the treatment of children. 1929 Wolfgang Kohler criticizes behaviorism in his publication on Gestalt Psychology. 1932 Jean Piaget published 'The Moral Judgment of Children' beginning his popularity as the leading theorist in cognitive development. Walter B. Cannon coined the term homeostasis and began research on the fight or flight phenomenon. 1935 Thematic Apperception Test (TAT) was published by Henry Murray.

24 1936 Egas Moniz published his work on frontal lobotomies as a treatment for mental illness. 1938 Electroshock therapy was first used on a human patient. 1939 Wechsler-Bellevue Intelligence Test was published which eventually became the most widely used intellectual assessment. The Canadian Psychological Associated was founded. 1942 Carl Rogers published 'Counseling and Psychotherapy' suggesting that respect and a non-judgmental approach to therapy is the foundation for effective treatment of mental health issues. Jean Piaget published 'Psychology of Intelligence' discussing his theories of cognitive development. Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI) was developed and fast became the most widely researched and widely accepted psychological assessment device.

25 1945 The state of Connecticut passed licensure legislation for psychologists, becoming the first state to recognize psychology as a protected practice oriented profession. The Journal of Clinical Psychology was founded. Karen Horney published her feministic views of psychoanalytic theory, marking the beginning of feminism. 1949 Boulder Conference outlines scientist-practitioner model of clinical psychology, looking at the M.D. versus Ph.D. used by medical providers and researchers, respectively. 1950 Erik Erikson published 'Childhood and Society,' where he expands Freud's Theory to include social aspects of personality development across the lifespan.

26 1952 A study on psychotherapy efficacy was published by Hans Eysenck suggesting that therapy is no more effective that no treatment at all.  This prompted an onslaught of outcome studies which have since shown psychotherapy to be an effective treatment for mental illness. The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) was published by The American Psychiatric Association marking the beginning of modern mental illness classification. Chlorpromazine (Thorazine) first used in the treatment of schizophrenia. 1953 B.F. Skinner outlined behavioral therapy, lending support for behavioral psychology via research in the literature. Code of Ethics for Psychologists was developed by the American Psychological Association. 1954 Abraham Maslow helped to found Humanistic Psychology and later developed his famous Hierarchy of Needs. 1957 Leon Festinger proposed his theory of 'Cognitive Dissonance' and later became an influence figure in Social Psychology.

27 1961 John Berry introduced the importance of cross-cultural research bringing diversity into the forefront of psychological research and application. Carl Rogers published 'On Becoming a Person,' marking a powerful change in how treatment for mental health issues is conducted. 1963 Alfred Bandura introduced the idea of Observational Learning on the development of personality. Lawrence Kolberg introduced his ideas for the sequencing of morality development. 1967   Aaron Beck published a psychological model of depression suggesting that thoughts play a significant role in the development and maintenance of depression.

28 1968   DSM II was published by the American Psychiatric Association. 1968 First Doctor of Psychology (Psy.D.) professional degree program in Clinical Psychology was established in the Department of Psychology at The University of Illinois - Urbana/Champaign. 1969 Joseph Wolpe published 'The Practice of Behavior Therapy.' 1971 First Doctorate in Psychology (Psy.D.) awarded (from The University of Illinois - Urbana/Champaign). 1973 APA endorsed the Psy.D. degree for professional practice in psychology. 1980 DSM III published by the American Psychiatric Association. 1983 Howard Gardner (professor at Harvard University) introduced his theory of multiple intelligence, arguing that intelligence is something to be used to improve lives not to measure and quantify human beings.

29 1988 American Psychological Society established. 1990 The emergence of managed care prompts the APA to become more political, leading to the idea of Prescribing Psychologists and equity in mental health coverage. 1994 DSM IV published by the American Psychiatric Association. 1995 First Psychologists prescribe medication through the U.S. military's psychopharmacology program. 1997 Deep Blue, the supercomputer at the time, beats the World's best chess player, Kasparov, marking a milestone in the development of artificial intelligence. 1998 Psychology advances to the technological age with the emergence of e-therapy. 1999 Psychologists in Guam gain prescription privileges for psychotropic medication. 2002 New Mexico becomes the first state to pass legislation allowing licensed psychologists to prescribe psychotropic medication. The push for mental health parity gets the attention of the White House as President George W. Bush promotes legislation that would guarantee comprehensive mental health coverage.

30 Timeline


32 1926  The University of the Philippines Department of Psychology is established within the School of   Education. Agustin Alonzo is chairman.          1930s  The Department of Psychology at the University of Santo Tomas is established.   1932  Sinforoso Padilla organizes the Psychological Clinic at the University of the Philippines.   1933  Jesus Perpinan sets up the Far Eastern University Psychological Clinic.   1938  Angel de Blas, OP, sets up the Experimental Psychology Laboratory in the University of Santo Tomas.   1948  Estefania Aldaba-Lim sets up the Institute of Human Relations at Philippine Women's University.   1954  Joseph Goertz establishes the Psychology Department at the University of San Carlos.   1961  Fr. Jaime Bulatao establishes the Department of Psychology and the Central Guidance Bureau at the Ateneo de Manila University.   1962  The Philippine Psychological Corporation is founded. The corporation offers psychological services and is the main retailer of psychological tests.   The Psychological Association of the Philippines (PAP) is founded.  

33 1963  The PAP holds its first annual convention, leading to its first publication, Symposium on the Filipino Personality.   1968  The Philippine Journal of Psychology, the official journal of the PAP makes its first appearance.   The PAP, together with the Philippine Association of Social Workers, Philippine Economics Society, Philippine National Historical Association, Philippine Sociological Society, and Philippine Statistical Association form the Philippine Social Science Council.   1970s  Psychology becomes the most popular undergraduate major in many colleges and universities.   Psychological testing flourishes as the overseas contract workers boom begins.   1975  The Pambansang Samahan ng Sikolohiyang Pilipino is founded by Virgilio Enriquez   1975+  Several universities in the Visayas and Mindanao establish psychology departments.   1982  The PAP decides the time has come for quality control in the practice of psychology. It introduces a bill in the Batasan Pambansa that would require practicing psychologists to be licensed.  

34 1985  Amaryllis T. Torres is named an Outstanding Young Scientist by the NAST "In recognition of her researches in population, industrial psychology, social development and participatory strategies, and in evaluation studies, as well as her work on human development training."   1986  EDSA Revolution overthrows the Marcos dictatorship. Psychologists play a key role in the new government's Moral Recovery Program.   1987  Ma. Lourdes Arrelano-Carandang's book Filipino Children Under Stress is published. The book is cited by the Catholic Mass Media Awards for "its facscinating probe of a sad social concern, written in lucid language for the lay reader who cares deeply about out children".   1988  Alfredo V. Lagmay is named National Scientist by President Corazon Aquino.  


36 REPUBLIC ACT NO ] AN ACT PROFESSIONALIZING THE PRACTICE OF GUIDANCE AND COUNSELING AND CREATING FOR THIS PURPOSE A PROFESSIONAL REGULATORY BOARD OF GUIDANCE AND COUNSELING, APPROPRIATING FUNDS THEREFOR AND FOR OTHER PURPOSES Guidance and Counseling is a profession that involves the use of an integrated approach to the development of well-functioning individual primarily by helping him/her to utilize his /her potentials to the fullest and plan his/her future in accordance with his/her abilities, interests and needs. It includes functions such as counseling, psychological testing, (as to personality, career interest, study orientation, mental ability and aptitude), research, placement, group process, teaching and practicing of guidance and counseling subjects, particularly subjects given in the licensure examinations, and other human development services.


38 The emergence of a movement to explore indigenous psychological concepts and methods inspired attempts to develop psychological tests and other assessment instruments that were suitable for Filipinos. Many such efforts came from thesis and dissertation writers, mainly in the form of developing local norms, translating English texts to Filipino or making adaptations using local situations and scenes (Almonte, as cited in Evangelista, 1990). Continuing efforts on a larger scale, however, came from the Center for Educational Measurement (CEM), which has produced, among others, the Philippine Aptitude Classification Test and the Philippine Occupational Interest Survey (CEM, ). Many of these locally developed instruments (e.g., measures of aptitude and interest) were patterned after their Western counterparts, using what is called the "apples to bananas" approach (i.e., changing foreign names to local names). Others, however, particularly in the areas of personality and values, resulted from attempts to "'indigenize from within"' (Evangelista, 1990, p. 13), starting with the operationalization of constructs and theories within the cultural context.

39 The PCSPE (Presidential Commission to Survey Philippine Education (PCSPE) report stimulated the growth spurt of career guidance in the country. On the basis of its recommendations, the government initiated the following steps: (a) the introduction of weekly 1-hour homeroom guidance periods, with emphasis on career development, in all elementary and secondary schools; (b) the institution of the National College Entrance Examination (NCEE) as a basis for students' admission into professional degree programs in college; (c) the development and maintenance of "a responsive vocational guidance and testing system in aid of human resources allocation" (Presidential Decree 1412, as cited in Santamaria, 1979, p. 7) by the Bureau of Employment Services; and (d) the delineation of two major thrusts by the National Manpower and Youth Council (NMYC; now incorporated into the Technical Education and Skills Development Authority): skills training and vocational guidance for out-of-school youth (Santamaria, 1979). The private sector also responded to the PCSPE-identified needs. De La Salle University (DLSU, then known as De La Salle College) launched two projects in cooperation with the NMYC and some private foundations and industrial firms: one that aimed to develop career monographs and audiovisual materials (Salazar, 1986) and another that sought to develop a multiaptitude test battery that was patterned after the General Aptitude Test Battery (Salazar, 1977). The Rotary Club of Manila, on the other hand, again came into the picture as a publisher of career information books. The emergence of a movement to explore indigenous psychological concepts and methods inspired attempts to develop psychological tests and other assessment instruments that were suitable for Filipinos. Many such efforts came from thesis and dissertation writers, mainly in the form of developing local norms, translating English texts to Filipino or making adaptations using local situations and scenes (Almonte, as cited in Evangelista, 1990). Continuing efforts on a larger scale, however, came from the Center for Educational Measurement (CEM), which has produced, among others, the Philippine Aptitude Classification Test and the Philippine Occupational Interest Survey (CEM, ).


41 14th Congress Senate Bill No. 1767
MENTAL HEALTH PATIENTS BILL OF RIGHTS Filed on October 16, 2007 by Defensor Santiago, Miriam AN ACT TO ENSURE THAT MENTAL HEALTH PATIENTS RECEIVE THE PROTECTION AND SERVICES THEY REQUIRE Scope National Legislative status Pending in the Committee (11/5/2007)


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