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The “stuff” of life. Organic Molecules What do they have in common?

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Presentation on theme: "The “stuff” of life. Organic Molecules What do they have in common?"— Presentation transcript:

1 The “stuff” of life

2 Organic Molecules What do they have in common?

3 Living Organisms Are Chemical Factories All life is based on organic molecules - molecules that are built on a backbone of CARBON. - also contain Hydrogen - and many also have Oxygen - often contain functional groups – smaller molecules which are part of a larger molecule and give it unique properties

4 Why are Organic Molecules based on Carbon? Carbon has unique properties - carbon is abundant – there’s lots of it - can bond with up to 4 other atoms - can bond readily with itself and other elements - makes chains with different shapes - shape determines function - forms bonds with different strengths

5 Carbon can bond with up to four other atoms Carbon has 4 valence electrons Allows it to bond with 4 other atoms

6 Carbon Bonds Readily with Itself This allows carbon to be the backbone of large and complex molecules. C C C C C C C C C C C Carbon bonds readily with other elements - in living things: Sulfur, Phosphorus, Oxygen, Nitrogen, & Hydrogen (SPONCH)

7 Carbon Bonds to Build a Variety of Shapes Straight chains Branched chains Rings

8 Carbon Forms Bonds of Different Strengths Single Bonds Double Bonds Triple Bonds

9 Biomolecules are Macro(big)molecules All biological molecules (biomolecules) are large complex molecules – made of chains of smaller molecules 4 Types of biomolecules - Carbohydrates – sugars and starches - Lipids – fats and oils - Proteins - Nucleic Acids – DNA, RNA, ATP, ADP

10 Biomolecules are Polymers Polymer –(poly = many mer = part) -Large molecules made of smaller molecules called monomers (mono = one mer = part) Polymer Each type of biomolecule has its own monomer Biomolecule Monomer_________ CarbohydrateMonosaccharide LipidFatty Acid and Glycerol ProteinAmino Acid Nucleic AcidNucleotide

11 Condensation Reactions Condensation Reaction – Reaction which joins monomers together to form a polymer - called condensation reaction because a molecule of water is removed from the polymers during the reaction. - also called dehydration synthesis

12 Condensation Reaction

13 Hydrolysis Breaks Apart Polymers Hydrolysis – reactions which break the bonds between monomers in a polymer. Called hydrolysis because water is added at each broken bond

14 Hydrolysis

15 What should you know? Organic molecule Characteristics of carbon Biomolecule Macromolecule 4 types of biomolecules Monomer Monomers of each type of biomolecule Polymer Condensation reaction Hydrolysis

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