Presentation on theme: "Academic Attainment in California Community Colleges: Racial And Ethnic Disparities in the ARCC 2.0/Scorecard Metrics Tom Leigh Alice van Ommeren."— Presentation transcript:
Academic Attainment in California Community Colleges: Racial And Ethnic Disparities in the ARCC 2.0/Scorecard Metrics Tom Leigh Alice van Ommeren
Project Background Increasing attention to reducing the achievement or equity gap Policymakers/administrators are inquiring about racial/ethnic disparities Researchers are being tasked to measure inequities and disparities ARCC 2.0/Scorecard for the first time is reporting metrics by demographics
Achievement Gap in Education The observed and persistent disparity on educational measures between the performance of groups of students, especially groups defined by socioeconomic status, race/ethnicity and gender
Session Objectives Review ARCC 2.0/Scorecard metrics and describe disaggregation by demographics Describe various methods for measuring achievement/equity gaps Explore specific methods of capturing the achievement gap in the Scorecard – Using race/ethnicity as an example – Using two of the ARCC/Scorecard metrics
ARCC 2.0/Scorecard Framework State of the System (print) – Scorecard data, system metrics Scorecard (web, print) – College profile & metrics, single demographic Datamart 2.0 (web query tool) – College/district metrics by multiple crosstabs Data on Demand (web data download) – College metrics as unitary files
Scorecard Metrics Completion/Student Progress & Attainment (SPAR) Rate – Persistence Rate (first 3-terms) – At least 30 Units Rate Career Technical Education (CTE) Rate Remedial (Basic Skills) Rate – English, Math & ESL Career Development and College Preparation Rate (CDCP) Rate
Completion (SPAR) Rate Cohort (denominator) – First-time student in postsecondary, and – within 3 years, completed 6 units and attempted any Math or English Outcomes (numerator) in 6 years – Associates of Arts/Sciences, or – Certificates (CO/12+ units), or – Transfer (any 4-year), or – Transfer Prepared (60 units, GPA 2.0)
Persistence & 30 Units Rate Cohort (denominator, same as SPAR) – First-time student in postsecondary, and – within 3 years, completed 6 units and attempted any Math or English Outcomes (numerator) in 6 years – Persisted for 3 consecutive primary terms – At least 30 units, successfully completed
Completion (SPAR) Cohort Persistence At Least 30 Units Completion (SPAR) Outcomes
Draft Data (Overall Rates) Persistence30 UnitsSPAR African American 62.5%55.8%36.2% American Indian 66.159.837.1 Asian 72.072.865.5 Filipino 70.768.849.5 Hispanic 67.862.838.6 Pacific Islander 65.661.539.2 White, Non-Hispanic 18.104.22.168
Categories for Completion (SPAR) Rate Three categories (cohorts) of students based on first attempt in Math and/or English Prepared (College Level) – Lowest course attempted in Math and/or English was college level Unprepared (Remedial) – Lowest course attempted in Math and/or English was remedial level Overall - All students in the cohort, attempted any Math or English in the first three years
SPAR Prepared SPAR Unprepared SPAR Overall African American 61.7%32.2%36.2% American Indian 56.930.337.1 Asian 80.956.665.5 Filipino 69.842.049.5 Hispanic 63.133.838.6 Pacific Islander 22.214.171.124 White, Non-Hispanic 68.942.952.3
Remedial (Basic Skills) Rate Cohort (denominator) – In cohort year, attempted a remedial Math, English or ESL course for the first time Exclude dual enrollments in 4-years Outcome (numerator) – Within 6-years – Successfully completed degree or transfer course in same discipline
Remedial Math Remedial English Remedial ESL African American 27.1%24.1% American Indian 32.525.837.5 Asian 41.656.438.2 Filipino 42.046.034.3 Hispanic 35.634.425.3 Pacific Islander 30.035.029.1 White, Non-Hispanic 42.141.637.2
Measuring the Gap Subtraction of two groups is most common – African American-White gap for SPAR is 52.3% minus 36.2% = 16.1% Compare a subgroup rate to a standard, highest performing group or an average (mean) Distribution of subgroup at input (cohort) versus output (outcome) – Diversity Index Are there other ways of measuring the achievement/equity gap?
Study Considerations Racial categories are constructs, do not capture social, cultural, economic and political characteristics ARCC 2.0/Scorecard metrics are “indicators” of success and do not capture all students Metrics do not capture program level success Metrics and analysis does not capture other factors, need multivariate analysis
Are the racial/ethnic groups in the California Community College system attaining academic success at similar rates?
Compare relative percentages of ethnic/racial groups in cohorts and in the attainment of academic milestones: Prepared and Unprepared SPAR Cohorts Attainment of Academic Milestones Remedial Rates for English and Math Methodologies To Answer the Question: Proportionality ratio allows one to compare the status of a racial/ethnic group across conditions (milestones or group inclusion).
The proportionality ratio reflects differences in percentages for race/ethnicity subgroups between two conditions (milestones or group inclusion). A ratio of 1.0 indicates that the subgroup is present in both conditions at the same percentage rate. A ratio of less than 1.0 indicates that the subgroup is less prevalent in the numerator condition than the denominator condition. Conversely, a ratio of more than 1.0 indicates that the subgroup is more prevalent in the numerator condition than the denominator condition. Proportionality Ratio
Table 5. Remedial Math Cohort and Success by Race/Ethnicity Race/EthnicityCCC CensusRemedial CohortSuccess African American 7.2 12.99.4 American Indian 0.9 1.21.0 Asian 15.6 8.910.0 Hispanic 29.2 40.238.5 Pacific Islander 0.7 1.00.8 Unknown 10.5 7.68.3 White 36.0 28.332.1 Table 6. Remedial Math Disparity Index Race/EthnicityCohort/CensusSuccess/Cohort Disparity Index* African American126.96.36.199 American Indian188.8.131.52 Asian0.61.12.0 Hispanic1.41.00.7 Pacific Islander184.108.40.206 Unknown0.71.11.5 White0.81.11.4 * Success-Cohort Proportionality/Cohort-Census Proportionality
Major Findings: Asian, White, and students of unknown race/ethnicity were less likely to enroll in a remedial English or Math course, more likely to successfully complete a remedial sequence if enrolled, and more likely to attain the SPAR outcome. African American, American Indian, Hispanic, and Pacific Islander students were more likely to enroll in a remedial English or Math course, less likely to successfully complete a remedial sequence if enrolled, and less likely to attain the SPAR outcome.
Suggestions for College Researchers: Use five-year report to look at Scorecard rates over time for demographic subgroups Explore the rates of the subgroups using: – Subtraction of rates from two subgroups – Compare to the mean rate of all subgroups Create proportional ratios for various subgroups
Suggestions for College Researchers: Download from Data-on-Demand your college’s Scorecard dataset for each metric Replicate and validate the rates, check the size of the n’s (students) in the subgroups Replicate race/ethnicity proportionality analysis for each metric, do gender and age ratios Also, cross tabulate race/ethnicity with gender or age Analyze covariates of race/ethnicity with economic disadvantaged status And, educational history, family educational level, and self-efficacy expectations
Utility of Scorecard metrics for student equity plans? Analyze achievement gap or disparities among subgroups over time Describe and explain the variations across colleges, among peer groups in regions Explore the different outcomes in a multivariate relationship, for college replication) Explore other dimensions of diversity, such as age, gender, socioeconomics Suggestions for System Researchers
Contact Tom Leigh – email@example.com Alice van Ommeren – firstname.lastname@example.org