For thousands of years, we have been selectively breeding plants and animals We choose organisms with most desired traits to serve as parents This increases the frequency of desired alleles in a population over many generations
Involves cutting (or cleaving) DNA from one organism into small fragments and inserting those fragments into a host organism of the same or a different species.
Also called recombinant DNA technology. Recombinant DNA is made by connecting, or recombining, fragments of DNA from different sources. Transgenic organisms: contain foreign DNA from another species or organism.
Restriction enzymes cut DNA at specific nucleotide sequences. Cut DNA from two organisms using the same enzyme (that recognizes the same sequence) The two pieces will have matching ends that can be joined together.
Analyzing organisms’ DNA for crime investigations, paternity cases, and genetic diseases. Gel electrophoresis
Clones are genetically identical copies Most famous cloned organism is Dolly, the sheep cloned in 1997 Since then goats, mice, cattle, pigs, cats, and dogs have all been cloned
Animals that have been genetically altered could serve as models for studying human disease. Repopulate endangered animals or animals that are difficult to breed (Sumatran tiger or the giant panda). Produce whole organs from single cells or produce healthy cells that can replace damaged cells.
Cells that have none of its DNA turned on (undifferentiated) It can then become any type of cell based on what sections of DNA are turned on
Embryonic cells are already stem cells Some adult cells are stem cells, while others can become stem cells
Uses restriction enzymes to separate DNA into fragments of different sizes Fragments are separated by size through a “gel” & an electric current Larger fragments move slower than smaller, creating a specific pattern in the gel
If you use the same DNA source & the same restriction enzymes, the pattern in the gel will always be the same