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A Look at Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology.

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Presentation on theme: "A Look at Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology."— Presentation transcript:

1 A Look at Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology


3  For thousands of years, we have been selectively breeding plants and animals  We choose organisms with most desired traits to serve as parents  This increases the frequency of desired alleles in a population over many generations

4  Involves cutting (or cleaving) DNA from one organism into small fragments and inserting those fragments into a host organism of the same or a different species.

5  Also called recombinant DNA technology.  Recombinant DNA is made by connecting, or recombining, fragments of DNA from different sources.  Transgenic organisms: contain foreign DNA from another species or organism.

6  Restriction enzymes cut DNA at specific nucleotide sequences.  Cut DNA from two organisms using the same enzyme (that recognizes the same sequence)  The two pieces will have matching ends that can be joined together.


8  Once the new pieces are joined together, it is now called Recombinant DNARecombinant DNA  New combination of the sequence


10  Protein manufacturing (insulin)  Gene therapy  Selective breeding

11  Analyzing organisms’ DNA for crime investigations, paternity cases, and genetic diseases.  Gel electrophoresis

12  Clones are genetically identical copies  Most famous cloned organism is Dolly, the sheep cloned in 1997  Since then goats, mice, cattle, pigs, cats, and dogs have all been cloned

13  Animals that have been genetically altered could serve as models for studying human disease.  Repopulate endangered animals or animals that are difficult to breed (Sumatran tiger or the giant panda).  Produce whole organs from single cells or produce healthy cells that can replace damaged cells.

14  Cells that have none of its DNA turned on (undifferentiated)  It can then become any type of cell based on what sections of DNA are turned on

15  Embryonic cells are already stem cells  Some adult cells are stem cells, while others can become stem cells

16  Uses restriction enzymes to separate DNA into fragments of different sizes  Fragments are separated by size through a “gel” & an electric current  Larger fragments move slower than smaller, creating a specific pattern in the gel

17  If you use the same DNA source & the same restriction enzymes, the pattern in the gel will always be the same

18  Try this activity… Try this activity…

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