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Introduction to Geography Arthur Getis, Judith Getis, & Jerome D. Fellmann.

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Presentation on theme: "Introduction to Geography Arthur Getis, Judith Getis, & Jerome D. Fellmann."— Presentation transcript:

1 Introduction to Geography Arthur Getis, Judith Getis, & Jerome D. Fellmann

2 Economic Geography Chapter 10

3 Overview Classification of Economic Activity Primary Activities Secondary Activities Tertiary & Beyond

4 Classification of Economic Activities Primary activities Hunting, gathering, grazing, agriculture, fishing, forestry, mining Secondary activities Manufacturing Tertiary activities Services Quaternary activities Processing & dissemination of information Quinary activities High-level decision-making jobs

5 Types of Economic Systems Subsistence economies Commercial economies Planned economies

6 Agriculture The growing of crops & the tending of livestock

7 Subsistence Agriculture Extensive Subsistence Agriculture Nomadic herding Transhumance Shifting cultivation Swidden or shifting cultivation Intensive Subsistence Agriculture Rice farming Urban farming Green Revolution gains

8 Commercial Agriculture Production Controls Von Thünen Model Land near markets is used intensively for high-value crops & is divided into small units Land far from markets is used extensively Intensive Commercial Agriculture Dairy & truck farms Livestock-grain farming Extensive Commercial Agriculture Large-scale wheat farming Livestock ranching Special Crops Mediterranean Plantations

9 Other Primary Activities Fishing & Forestry Mining & Quarrying

10 Manufacturing Industrial Location Models Least Cost Theory Alfred Weber Agglomeration Other Considerations Fordist vs. flexible manufacturing Transport Characteristics Agglomeration Economies External economies Comparative Advantage

11 Transnational Corporations (TNCs) Many of the world’s largest economies are corporations 75 million employees 10% of worldwide, nonagrarian employment

12 World Manufacturing Patterns & Trends Small number of areas dominate Eastern Anglo America Western & Central Europe Eastern Europe Eastern Asia

13 High Tech Patterns Major factor in employment growth & an increasing share of industrial output Regionally concentrated Silicon Valley Location tendencies  Proximity to universities  Avoidance of areas with strong unions  Locally available venture capital  Areas with favorable quality of life  Good communication & transportation infrastructure

14 Tertiary & Beyond Over 80% of all workers in U.S. Distribution of services must match effective demand Tourism an important sector Quaternary & Quinary increasingly important

15 Services in World Trade Nearly ¼ of all world trade Financial, brokerage, & leasing services Developing countries can benefit Foreign Direct Investment

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