Total population -increase from 794 million in 2000 to 1.489 billion in 2030. About 70 percent of this growth will take place in African cities and towns. Urban population is projected to more than double, from 295 million in 2000 to 748 million by 2030 Within 25 years, Africa’s urban population will be larger than that in North America, Europe, or Latin America.
Contributes to about 60% of GDP Serve as centres of technology generation and knowledge transfer - industrialization Employment and educational opportunities
Rapid growth of population due to: - Natural increase in cities (high fertility rates (4.7 % in 2007 compared to the global average 2.5 %) - Rural to urban migration - relative decrease in death rates compared to rural areas Unequal pace development in: -Social service provision - housing and sanitation - preferential treatment by virtue of their location
Unlike Asia and Europe, urbanization is taking place in the absence of significant industrial expansion. Outward expansion and conversion of prime agricultural lands into residential and industrial uses. Less inward expansion of build up areas
Urbanization and Malaria-Rapid urbanization and poor sanitation is increasing malaria disease burden among urban dwellers. - 200 million people (24.6% of the total African population) live in urban settings (which covers 1.1–1.6% of the total African surface) and are at risk of contracting malaria - Annual incidence of about 24.8–103.2 million cases of clinical malaria (6–28% of the estimated global annual malaria incidence). Urbanization led to infectious diseases such as pneumonia, tuberculosis and diarrhea. HIV/AIDS
Inadequate schools and facilities Clustering in schools Long distances to school
Active in possesses of addressing urban challenges: - 1976 in Vancouver - 1996 In Istanbul - 2000 MDG Forum - 2001 Istanbul +5 in New York - NEPAD urban cities initiative
- Development of sustainable cities - Mapping poverty - Empowering communities and local government
urge countries to - Halve poverty and the proportion of people with no access to water and sanitation - Improve access to energy - Reduce disease burden, including HIV/AIDS - Phase out harmful chemicals
The 2003 Maputo Decision- promoting the development of sustainable cities and Towns in Africa In May 2004 first NEPAD Cities Forum was organised in collaboration with UN habitat - share experiences -promote the development
Recognise the challenges faced by urban communities, planners and Manager Articulate the need for raising the standard of living for African population Commit to support the development of integrative role of entities Provide the framework for enhancing the process of building the capacities of cities
A. Capacity building Encourage the improvement of infrastructure and social services Advocate for the involvement of communities in initiating, planning and implementation of urban development projects Provide political and institutional support to alleviate urban problems-housing, sanitation, pollution reduction
B. Ensure overall Coherence Focus on Holistic approaches City authorities in their programmes, project should focus on addressing the twin problem of poverty and exclusion through: - address demographic dynamic. Health, nutrition, food security, water sanitation -with emphasis on right –based issues - Include all stakeholders in city development
C. Strengthen local governance -Improve good governance in the urban centers -Enhance urban planning and development -Promote public participation at all levels D. Promote livelihood based approaches E. Create favourable conditions for the private sector to participate in the development of sustainable cities F. Enhance CSOs and NGOs to play a role in promoting urban development
G. Narrow gender gap in the provision of resources H. Facilities Slum upgrading through targeted subsidies that bring slums into the formal economy I. Reversing government programs and tax policies that help create sprawl.
J. Revitilizing already developed areas through measures such as attracting new businesses, reducing crime and improving schools; K. Pass laws to plan and provide environmentally sound cities - Polluter pay systems L. Transform the rural economy in order to slow the rate of urbanization.
Discus the projected trends of urbanization in Africa and comment on the reason for such occurrence With reference to specific example discuss how the problem of urbanization can be solved in Africa