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FEDERAL GOVERNMENT THE THREE BRANCHES OF GOVERNMENT * Legislative – Established in Article I * Executive – Established in Article II * Judicial – Established.

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Presentation on theme: "FEDERAL GOVERNMENT THE THREE BRANCHES OF GOVERNMENT * Legislative – Established in Article I * Executive – Established in Article II * Judicial – Established."— Presentation transcript:



3 THE THREE BRANCHES OF GOVERNMENT * Legislative – Established in Article I * Executive – Established in Article II * Judicial – Established in Article III

4 THE LEGISLATIVE BRANCH House of Representatives and Senate

5 LEGISLATIVE BRANCH Also called Congress. Meet in the Capitol Building in Washington, DC.

6 LEGISLATIVE BRANCH Bicameral - 2 Houses House of Representatives Senate Responsibility is to make (create) laws. Dual Role - constituents needs & wants and considering what is good for nation as a whole.

7 HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES 435 Seats Number of seats determined by state population. 19 Committees - 84 sub-committees Referred to as the “ lower ” house. Leader is called Speaker of the House.

8 HOUSE OF REPRESENATIVES Has sole power to Impeach President. All bills to raise money must come from the House of Representatives. All bills (laws) must pass in the House before going to the President.

9 SENATE 100 seats -2 seats per state - separate vote 16 Committees and 69 sub- committees Referred to as the “ upper ” house Vice President is President of Senate but NO vote unless a tie. Leader = President pro tempore Nicknamed “ Millionaires Club ”

10 SENATE Power to try impeachment - 2/3rd vote Senate approval needed on bills to raise money. All laws must pass in the Senate before going to the President.

11 LEGISLATIVE BRACH Powers of Congress Oversee elections Set rules within the legislative branch To tax, to borrow money, to coin money Set rules of naturalization regulate commerce Establish Post Offices

12 LEGISLATIVE BRANCH Powers continued…. To declare war To raise and support armies To make all laws that are necessary and proper

13 LEGISLATIVE BRANCH Powers that Congress DOES NOT have.. Can not suspend Habeas Corpus Can not tax inter-state commerce Can not take money from treasury unless a law is passed to do so Can not give a title of nobility

14 Copyright © 2011 Cengage

15 Do Members Represent Their Voters? Representational view–members vote to please their constituents Organizational View–members vote to please fellow members of Congress Attitudinal View–members vote on the basis of their own beliefs Copyright © 2011 Cengage

16 2014 Presidential Election by County


18 EXECUTIVE BRANCH Responsible for enforcing the laws. President is the head of the Executive Branch. President provides leadership by setting goals and developing policy.

19 EXECUTIVE BRANCH Must be a natural born citizen Must be at least 35 years old Must be 14 years a resident within the United States Term is for 4 years - only 2 in a row Must give state of the union to Congress

20 EXECUTIVE BRANCH Must take an oath as follows, “ I do solemnly swear that I will faithfully execute the Office of President of the United States, and will to the best of my ability, preserve, protect and defend the Constitution of the United States ”

21 EXECUTIVE BRANCH Powers of the President…. Commander and Chief of the Army and Navy Can grant pardons and Can veto laws. Can call Congress into session. Make treaties, appoint Supreme Court Justices and Ambassadors - Senate approval

22 EXECUTIVE BRANCH Can be impeached for the following reasons: Treason Bribery Other high Crimes and Misdemeanors

23 EXECUTIVE BRANCH President creates cabinet - advisors Department of State, Treasury, Interior, Agriculture, Justice, Labor, Commerce, Veterans ’ Affairs, Defense, Health and Human Services, Housing and Urban Development, Transportation, Energy, Education and NOW Homeland Security


25 JUDICIAL BRANCH Responsible for interpreting the law in regards to the Constitution Final court of appeals for state and federal cases. Supreme Court justices are appointed by the President, approved by the Senate, and they hold their office for life or retirement.

26 JUDICIAL BRANCH Currently - 9 Justices - only can be changed by Constitutional Amendment Justices hear 150 cases per year - over 5000 requests 4 Justices need to agree to hear a case Session is October through June Removed by impeachment or conviction

27 JUDICIAL BRANCH Qualifications - nothing listed in the Constitution Unofficial qualifications are: Politically active Lawyer or Lower Court Judge Same political party as the President

28 JUDICIAL BRANCH Article III is where we define treason. Treason = committing an overt action - it must be seen Talking about treason is not a crime Can not punish family

29 JUDICIAL BRANCH Judicial Act of 1789 Created three part court system Established the Office of Attorney General Job of Attorney General is to represent the USA in the Supreme Court and to be a legal advisor to the Executive Branch


31 Civil Cases - sue, divorce, contracts, any case that does not involve a crime Criminal Cases - commit a crime Defendant - the person on trial Plaintiff - person who brought case to court Prosecutor - represents city, state, people in a criminal case

32 JUDICIAL BRANCH Influences on the Court Precedents - past decisions Personal legal views - strict interpretation means to look at intent of founding fathers - broad interpretation means you need to take into account changes in society Justices interaction

33 JUDICIAL BRANCH Influences continued…… Public Opinion, Congress, and the President

34 Copyright © 2011 Cengage


36 Overview Judicial Review – the power of courts to declare laws unconstitutional Judicial Restraint Approach – judges should decide cases strictly on the basis of the language of the Constitution Activist Approach – judges should discern the general principles underlying the Constitution and apply them to modern circumstances Copyright © 2011 Cengage

37 Map 16.1 U.S. District and Appellate Courts Copyright © 2011 Cengage Note: Washington, D.C., is in a separate court. Puerto Rico is in the first circuit; the Virgin Islands are in the third; Guam and the Northern Mariana Islands are in the ninth. Source: Administrative Office of the United States Courts (January 1983).

38 Activist v. Originalist om/watch?v=VXeUfVh DVUM&feature=relate d om/watch?v=VXeUfVh DVUM&feature=relate d /23/Uncommon_Know ledge_Antonin_Scalia #fullprogram /23/Uncommon_Know ledge_Antonin_Scalia #fullprogram

39 Divided Government Divided government – One party controls the White House and another party controls one or both houses of Congress Unified government – The same party controls the White House and both houses of Congress Does gridlock matter? Is policy gridlock bad? Copyright © 2011 Cengage


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