Presentation on theme: "GIRL SCOUTS THROUGH THE AGES: A LOOK AT GIRL SCOUTS IN AMERICA"— Presentation transcript:
1 GIRL SCOUTS THROUGH THE AGES: A LOOK AT GIRL SCOUTS IN AMERICA My bullet points are three highest awards in Girl Scouts for three levels:-the 1st is the Gold Award, the highest award in Girl Scouting (Senior)-the 2nd is the Silver Award (Cadette)-and the 3rd is the Bronze Award (Junior)I did much of my work on an iMac, and when I transferred the file, some things changed around. I could not figure out how to keep the file from changing, so I apologize if the pictures are out of whack or the text is off the page. I ended up finishing at home, and organized the PP so it looked good on the iMac.Colleen M AHAP-NOP Horace Greeley H.S Chappaqua, NY
2 ESSENTIAL QUESTION:How did Girl Scouts as an organization reflect the changing roles of women in society?
3 Origins Founded in 1912 by Juliette Gordon Low Four of the first badgesFounded in 1912 by Juliette Gordon LowCalled Girl Guides for its first yearThe first troop meeting was held on March 12, 1912 in Savannah, GeorgiaThe idea came from Lord Baden Powell, who founded Boy Scouts in England, and his sister, Agnes, who founded Girl GuidesAt this time, a woman’s future was limited, as was her schoolingOne of the first troops (circa 1912)
4 PurposeThe purpose of Girl Scouts was to establish self-development, good citizenship, and love of the outdoorsBecause of her marital problems (after his death, Low’s husband left his estate to his mistress), Low encouraged independence in girlsWhile still promoting the ideals of the era (housekeeping, child care, etc), Girl Scouts also emphasized independence, physical fitness, and careers for womenJuliette Low awarding the Golden Eaglet, the highest award in Girl Scouts at the time
5 UniformsIn this time period, women usually wore long dresses that covered their wrists, neck, and anklesProblem: Juliette Low wanted the girls to be able to move aroundThe end result was a short dress, cinched around the middle with a belt, with thick stockings for winter and lighter tights for warm weatherIn 1912, the uniform was actually blueIt was changed to khaki in 1914, and to the now-famous green in 1928
6 Uniforms Uniforms were a way for the organization to be recognized When they were in public, people would be able to associate the girls with a specific organizationThis would connect Girl Scouts with a helpful, not revolutionary, purposeAt first, the badges were sewn onto the sleeves of the dressOnly later were vests and sashes createdpresent1970s1940s
7 Badges and HandbooksOriginally the badges were to let the girls show off their prowess in “acceptable” activities, such as sewing, cooking, etcThe handbook contained “helpful” information on how a proper lady should think and actWhile Girl Scouts professed some new ideas, the organization mostly stayed true to the ideas of the “ideal woman” of that time1920 Girl Scout HandbookThe first handbook (1913)
8 The Girl Scout LawsA Girl Scout’s Honor is to be Trusted. 2. A Girl Scout is Loyal. 3. A Girl Scout's Duty Is to be Useful and to Help Others 4. A Girl Scout is a Friend to All, and a Sister to every other Girl Scout no matter to what Social Class she May Belong. 5. A Girl Scout Is Courteous. 6. A Girl Scout Keeps Herself Pure. 7. A Girl Scout Is a Friend to Animals. 8. A Girl Scout Obeys Orders. 9. Girl Scout is Cheerful. 10. A Girl Scout is Thrifty.The values of this time period were reflected in the lawsCheerful- “…(she) should sing even if she dislikes it”Women were meant to make the world more pleasant
9 A “medieval” representation of the Girl Scout Laws and Promise In 1916, the 6th Law was changed to Cheerful, and the 9th Law was changed to PureIn 1917, the 4th Law was changed to read: A Girl Scout is a Friend to All and a Sister to Every Other Girl ScoutAfter 1917, the laws would not be changed again until 1972At that point, Girl Scouts itself, as well as their ideals, had undergone many changesA “medieval” representation of the Girl Scout Laws and Promise
10 Girl Scouts team up to preserve fruits and vegetables to prevent World War I ( )While the men went off to fight in Europe, someone had to pick up the jobs that they left behindWomen began to work in jobs that had never before been done by femalesGirls helped to conserve and preserve food, sold war bonds, worked in hospitals, and collected peach pits for use in gas mask filtersThe war gave girls the chance to earn over 25 badgesChild Nurse, etcGirl Scouts team up to preserve fruits and vegetables to preventfood shortages
11 Mrs. Felegara with her troop in 1941 Elizabeth Felegara1938Elizabeth Felegara was in the first Chappaqua Girl Scout troop in 1937Some of her activities included hiking, photography, knots and lashing, and learning Morse CodeIn the early 1940s (during WWII), she and her troop helped their mothers (who were nurses) in local army hospitals“I suppose we were the forerunners of The Candy Stripers.”(primary source document)Mrs. Felegara with her troop in 1941
12 A Victory Garden booklet Elizabeth FelegaraThe girls planted Victory Gardens, even in 1940, before Pearl Harbor“We…had a Victory Garden Contest…which I won…”One who was of age had to (and wanted to) look like a lady“…we asked Betty White to speak to the girls about good grooming- taking showers, using deodorant, a tad of lipstick, etc.”Makeup was becoming popularWomen were becoming an everyday part of society, and they wanted to look presentableA Victory Garden booklet
13 Lou Henry Hoover Throughout her life, Mrs. Hoover loved Girl Scouts "To me…scouting has always been the most important.”She became the leader of Troop VIIIShe served on every branch of Girl Scouting: from troop leader, to president of the national organization, to national board memberAn example of the “new woman”- active in societyAs First Lady, she was the honorary head of Girl ScoutsMrs. Hoover making her first radio address in the White House, accompanied by two Girl Scouts
14 The Great Depression (1929-1939) During the Depression, membership in Girl Scouts continued to grow, partially because it provided relief and opportunities to girls (especially poorer ones)The girls did community service to help those severely affected by the DepressionCollecting clothing, making quilts, carving wood toys, gathering food, assisting in hospitals, participating in food drives and canning programs, and providing mealsTheatre, movies, art, dance, and music were all distractions from the hopelessness of everyday life, and the Girl Scouts participated in and created more of themGathering food for neighbors in need
15 Girl Scouts learn about aviation through the Wing Scout program WWII ( )During the war, Girl Scouts rose to the occasion and greatly helped on the home frontThey operated bicycle courier services, invested over 48,000 hours in Farm Aide projects, collected fat and scrap metal, and grew Victory GardensThey collected over 1.5 million pieces of clothing and shipped them to Europe for the freed prisoners of warPamphlets were given out about service projects and how to act in an aid raidGirl Scouts learn about aviation through the Wing Scout program
16 Girl Scouts collect scrap metal for recycling for the war effort. WWIIUp until this point, there wasn’t an event that really gave the Girl Scouts a chance to help and prove themselvesWomen met the needs of the nation by taking on jobs in factories that were once occupied by menAfter the war ended, many women didn’t want to go back to their old lives, which paved the way for the “revolution” of women in the workplaceThe Girl Scouts of WWII became the women who fought for the right to work in “a man’s world”Girl Scouts collect scrap metal for recycling for the war effort.
17 1950sTwo Senior Girl Scouts preparefor a camping adventure.Girl Scouts encourage international friendships.Brown vs Board of Ed (1954) shocked many in the demand for desegregation of the schoolsHowever, the Girl Scouts has already begun mixing racesEbony Magazine (1952)- “Girl Scouts in the South are making steady progress toward breaking down racial taboos."Some of the “social outcasts” that were Girl Scouts expended much effort to include were the daughters of migrant agricultural workers, military personnel, Native Americans, Alaskan Eskimos, and the physically challengedMuch of the rest of society hadn’t accepted these groups as equal to whites yet
18 1950sHowever, women were still considered inferior to men, and only there to serve and please malesThere were textbooks detailing what a good wife should and should not do“Don't complain if he's home late for dinner, or even stays out all night.”“His boring day may need a lift and one of your duties is to provide it.”“Don't ask him questions about his actions or question his judgment or integrity. Remember he is the master of the house and as such will always exercise his will with fairness and truthfulness.”“In all things be led by your husband's wishes…”
19 1960s The 60s were a time of great social unrest Martin Luther King, Jr and others fought for black civil rightsThe Girl Scout National Council publicly announced that the organization supported civil rightsIn this time, Girl Scouts was divided into Brownie, Junior, Cadette, and Senior Scouts, depending on ageNASA invited 100 girls to see the launch of Apollo 12 at Cape Kennedy, FloridaBy 1969, over 43% of women were workingIn the 1950s, a woman’s place was in the houseGirl Scouts witness theApollo 12 moon launch at Cape Kennedy, Florida.
20 The Girl Scout Law1972 I will do my best: To be honest To be fair To help where I am needed To be cheerful To be friendly and considerate To be a sister to every Girl Scout To respect authority To use resources wisely To protect and improve the world around me To show respect for myself and others through my words and actions.The law became one sentence, focusing more on the qualities expected of every human being, and not just a womanReason: women had become more valued members of society, and not just people to take care of the home
21 1970sIn 1975, Gloria D. Scott became the first African-American National Girl Scout PresidentIn response to the growing environmental awareness, an program called Eco-Action was bornThe win in 1973 by Billie Jean King in “The Battle of the Sexes” created more feminist feeling- maybe men weren’t really better than women at allAnna Mae McCabe Hays becomes the first woman general in the U.S. ArmyShortly before this, women were in their own separate unitGirl Scouts taught girls many things needed in the military- there were numerous Girl Scouts-gone-soldiers
22 Two informational pamphlets The informational pamphlet Tune In to Well-Being, Say No to Drugs was first published in 1985This was part of the “Say No To Drugs” campaign led by First Lady Nancy ReaganIn response to the growing threat of the AIDS epidemicAs the US reached out to other countries, Girl Scouts did tooIn New York, the Edith Macy International Center openedIt would later serve as a meeting place for Girl Scouts of all countries, and a place where customs could be sharedTwo informational pamphlets
23 The explosion of Challenger 7 In 1986, the spacecraft Challenger exploded, killing all seven astronauts, including school teacher and former Girl Scout, Sharon Christa McAuliffe.Sandra Day O'Connor, also a Girl Scout alumna, became the first female Supreme Court Justice.Christa McAuliffeThe explosion of Challenger 7Sandra Day O’Connor
24 1990sNearly four million Girl Scouts, girls and adult leaders, tackled illiteracy alongside First Lady Barbara Bush in the Right to Read service projectGirls came from being almost totally illiterate to helping others who were- how they had progress from their beginnings in 1912Girl Scouts began a health and fitness national service project, Be Your Best, to promote different ways of being healthy, keeping fit, and eating rightThis came along with the new food pyramid, which happened to be drastically different from the previous ones
25 The Girl Scout Law The part “courageous and strong” was new 1992 I will do my best to be honest and fair, friendly and helpful, considerate and caring, courageous and strong, and responsible for what I say and do, and to respect myself and others, respect authority, use resources wisely, make the world a better place, and be a sister to every Girl Scout.The part “courageous and strong” was newIt reflected the new idea of what a woman should be, or rather, what she did not have to beWomen now had a say in their own lives
26 9-11-01 Girl Scout Patch (not earned, just to show support) September 11th, 2001After the tragic events of 9/11, Girl Scouts everywhere banded together to helpIn NY, hundreds of boxes of Girl Scout cookies were sent to the volunteers working at Ground ZeroThousands of women (some former Girl Scouts) joined the military to fight al Qaeda60 years ago, women fought in separate units, most of which never saw actual combatNo event since Vietnam had the general public been this involved in a national crisisThey performed community services, hosted remembrance ceremonies, and wrote thank-you letters to rescuersGirl Scout Patch (not earned, just to show support)
27 Afghanistan and IraqOne soldiers actually began going over to Afghanistan and Iraq, Girl Scouts started collecting food, clothing, and money to send to both the soldiers and the nativesWhen asked by President Bush, almost every Girl Scout donated $1 to the children of AfghanistanThere continues to be a drive with every cookie sale that sends cases over to the soldiersIn March 2004, Girl and Boy Scouts were founded in IraqA Brownie high-fives a soldier while delivering cookies to be shipped overseas to the troops
28 Modern Girl ScoutsMembership in GSUSA went from 18 girls in 1912 to 3.3 million in 2007Currently, wearing uniforms is not demanded for every meeting as it was in the beginningNot many girls wear the white gloves and skirtThere are over ten different kinds of cookies sold each yearGirl Scouts has become one of the most influential and well-known organizations in the worldThey have continued to give girls the opportunity to change the world around themGirl Scouts are extremely valuableBy earning different awards, they are also helping their community
30 Extra Info The Highest Award Golden Eaglet of Merit, 1916 to (the first Girl Scout top award)Golden Eaglet, 1919 to Curved Bar Award, 1940 to First Class award, 1963 to Girl Scout Gold Award®, 1980 to present The Highest AwardEach of these awards tested the strength of character, as well as the motivation, of the girl earning itThe Gold Award includes 30 hours of leadership, Interest Project Patches, and several other time consuming prerequisitesThe projectMust have continuity, leadership, and community service, as well as being at least 65 hours
31 Bibliography2001. Legacies: A Girl Scout Uniform. Smithsonian. 7 June 2007 <http://www.smithsonianlegacies.si.edu/objectdescription.cfm?ID=225>.Challenger 7 Astronauts Space Today Online. 7 June 2007 <http://www.spacetoday.org/History/MannedSpcFltHistory.html>.Discovery Education, comp. "1960s." Women of the Century Discovery Channel. 7 June 2007 <http://school.discovery.com/schooladventures/womenofthecentury/decadebydecade/1960s.html>."Everything2." Girl Scout Law. 23 July The Everything Development Company. 2 June 2007 <http://www.everything2.com/index.pl?node_id= >.Felegara, Elizabeth F. Letter to Betsy Towl. Letter Describing Mrs. Felegara's Experience as a Girl Scout in Chappaqua. Horace Greeley Historical Society, Chappaqua.Four of the First Girl Scout Badges. Girl Scout Museum. GSUSA. 7 June 2007 <http://www.girlscouts.org/who_we_are/history/museum/>.The Girl Scouts are (a) Time-Honored American Institutions. They Were Founded in GSUSA. Watching America. GSUSA. 4 June 2007 <http://www.watchingamerica.com/orientalmorningnews shtml>."Girl Scouts of the USA." General Information About Scouting. 8 Dec Boy Scouts. 1 June 2007 <http://www.troop97.net/bsainfo.htm>.Girl Scouts Treat Soldiers in Iraq. Topix.net. Topix.net. 7 June 2007 <http://www.topix.net/iq/tikrit/2007/05/girl-scouts-treat-soldiers-in-iraq>.Gsusa, comp. Girl Scout Badges and Signs. New York City: GSUSA, 1980.Gsusa, comp. "Girl Scouts Timeline." Girl Scouts of the USA GSUSA. 2 June 2007 <http://www.girlscouts.org/who_we_are/history/timeline/>.
32 BibliographyGsusa, comp. Senior Girl Scout Handbook. New York City: GSUSA, 1963.Gsusa, comp. Senior Girl Scouting. New York City: GSUSA, 1945.Gsusa, comp. Worlds to Explore: Handbook for Brownie and Junior Girl Scouts. New York City: GSUSA, 1977.Gsusa. Junior Girl Scout Handbook. New York City: Girl Scouts, Inc, 1963.The Honorable Sandra Day O'Connor. Sylcanus Thayer Award Recipients. West Point. 7 June 2007 <http://www.aogusma.org/aog/awards/TA/awardees.htm>."How to Be a Good Wife." From Home Economics Textbook June 2007 <http://www.derbygripe.co.uk/oddsocks/goodwife.htm>.Lewis, Chris H. "American Women in the 1950s." American Studies. Colorado University. 6 June 2007 <http://www.colorado.edu/AmStudies/lewis/2010/fifties.htm>.Lone Star Girl Scout Coun, comp. History of Girl Scouts. GSUSA. 2 June 2007 <http://www.main.org/gsusa/histry.htm>.Low, Juliette. How Girls Can Help Their Country. Bedford: Applewood Books, June 2007 <http://www.amazon.com/gp/reader/ /ref=sib_dp_pt/ #>.Maher, Colleen A. 1940s Uniform Chappaqua. New Castle Historical Society.Maher, Colleen A Uniform Chappaqua. New Castle Historical Society.Middleton, Ken. "1970s." American Women Through Time. Middle Tennessee State University. 7 June 2007 <http://www.mtsu.edu/~kmiddlet/history/women/wh-70s.html>.On January 28, 1986 America Was Shocked by the Destruction of the Space Shuttle Challenger, and the Death of Its Seven Crew Members Rhode Island. Historica Images. Brown University. 7 June 2007 <http://www.cs.brown.edu/courses/cs024/imagesHistoric.html>.
33 BibliographyPojer, Susan, comp. "America in the 1960s." HistoryTeacher.Net. 7 June 2007 <http://historyteacher.net/AHAP/Research_Links/HOH-Americainthe1960s.pdf>.Program Division, Girl Sc. Girl Scout Handbook. 13th ed. New York City: GSUSA, 1952.Program Division, Girl Sc. Girl Scout Handbook. New York City: Girl Scouts, Inc,Rare Girl Scout Patch Rare Girl Scout Patch. eBay. <http://cgi.ebay.com/N-Y-Girl-Scout Patch-September Rare_W0QQitemZ QQihZ013QQcategoryZ13892QQcmdZViewItem#ebayphotohosting>.San Fransisco, San Fransisco. Diablo Day Camp. San Fransisco Bay Girl Scout Council. 4 June 2007 <http://www.diablodaycamp.com/Adult_Volunteer_Training.htm>.Troop 1440, comp. "History of the Girl Scout Organization." 25 Feb GSUSA. 2 June 2007 <http://cheesecakeandfriends.com/Troop1440/history.htm>.When the Four Winds Met. By Oleda Schrottky. Dist. GsusaThe White House. "Iraqis to Participate in Boy Scouts and Girl Scouts." Iraq Fact of the Day. 2 Mar The White House. 7 June 2007 <http://www.whitehouse.gov/news/releases/2004/03/ html>.